Essay on Maria: Roman Empire and Good Moral Life

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Early Humans Review
Please define the following key terms in your notebook:

1. Adapt-To change your way of life in a new environment.

2. Archaeology- The study of past life by examining fossils and artifacts.

3. Culture- A way of life which includes customs, music, dance and art.

4. Migration- A permanent move of people from one area to another.

5. Modify- To change the environment to meet your own needs.

6. Nomad- A person who moves with the seasons.

7. Prehistory- The time period before the development of writing.

Thoroughly explain the following key concepts:

1. How does the invention and use of tools explain the development of technology?
Tools evolved from crudely shaped pieces of stone to precise instruments. Tool making demonstrates the idea of taking an existing object and making it more useful.

2. Why did early humans wander in bands?
Early humans wandered in bands following migrating herds of animals during seasonal changes to their environment.

3. How did early humans adapt to their environment?
Early humans adapted to their environment by living in caves for shelter, gathering berries and nuts for food, and wearing clothing for warmth.

4. How did early humans modify their environment?
Humans modified their environment by cutting down trees to build shelters, domesticating of plants and animals, and burning forests to create farmland.

5. Why did early humans migrate throughout the world and what path did they follow?
Human migration began in Africa, followed by Asia, Europe, Australia, North America and then South America. Humans migrated due to changes in climate, and food supply.

6. What did archaeologists learn by studying Paleolithic Art?
Archaeologists learned that early humans eventually became hunters, they had enough spare time to create cave art, they had religious or spiritual beliefs, and the decorated their homes or caves.

Ancient China Study Guide

Key Terms:
-Anarchy- A State of disorder and confusion.
-Filial piety- Devotion to parents and family.
-Yin and Yang- The balance of two forces at work in the universe. Yang represented man, day, and activity. Yin represented women, night, and calmness.
-Era of Warring States- Confusion and disorder ruled during this era in Chinese history over power and control. China was very difficult to rule due to its size, and geographical boundaries such as deserts, mountains, and rivers, and oceans.
-Mandate of Heaven- The belief that heaven was supreme force in nature that gave dynasties the right to rule.
-Describe traditional Chinese family relationships- Older men had the most power and rights in an Ancient Chinese family. The main goal of marriage in China was to strengthen wealth and social status of the family. It was also common for extended family (large group of family living together) which included grandparents, and aunts and uncles to live together. In addition, many families had several generations of family members living under the same roof. Ancestor worship or honoring the spirits of the dead was an important practice in Ancient Chinese families. It was thought that honoring the family’s deceased relatives, would bring good fortune to the family, and the spirits of deceased relatives would watch over the family.
-The Silk Road- Established during the Han dynasty. A trade route extended from Asia to Europe. Goods such as Silk and Jade were exported and brought great wealth to the Han Dynasty, as well as an exchange of ideas, and philosophies with the west. Along with the expansive trade route, were control posts to help make travel safer from thieves.
-Han Dynasty achievements- Inventions include: paper, porcelain, the seismograph, compasses, star maps, and the wheelbarrow.

Key People:
-Emperor Qin- Conquered all rival kingdoms in battle to unify China, established uniform standards in commerce, standardized a single written language, ordered the construction