Marilyn Ray and Jean Watson's Theories Compared Essay

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Pages: 7

Marilyn Ray and Jean Watson’s Caring Theories Compared
Winifred Hernandez
National American University

How is caring defined? In nursing, caring is an essential part of our profession. It is the foundation and initial approach used in our daily practice. There are many belief systems in which caring is examined. The two theories discussed in this paper are Marilyn Anne Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring and Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring was generated in a complex organization, while The Theory of Human caring defines caring in more of a scientific way. The definition of caring for each have some similar characteristics, but these two theorist methodologies are quite different.
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We must apply to everyday practice all elements of the Holographic Theory of Bureaucratic Caring to each and every patient (Bailey, 2009). Understanding and applying these concepts will provide a consistent universal approach to caring for the patients.
In summary, Ray expresses that when caring is defined as an art or science, neither is adequate to signify current practice. “Nurses must be able to understand and articulate the politics and economics of nursing practice and health care” (Parker & Smith, 2010, p 490). Having this information, nurses will be able to challenge and change the system.
Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring defines caring as a science which includes arts, sciences and humanities. The goal of nursing is centered on helping patients to gain a higher degree of harmony within the body, mind and soul. This is achieved through caring transactions (Vance, 2003). It involves the transpersonal caring relationship viewing the patient as a whole, regardless of the disease process (Parker & Smith, 2010). Nurses seek to connect and embrace patients through caring and healing. Caring takes place immediately after a nurse meets and greets a patient. It is the belief that nurses care for patients in the hope that they will participate in their immediate recovery process (Parker & Smith, 2010).
Watson’s beliefs are that there are 2 basic ideas in the science of caring in nursing. The first is that caring has