The five elements of the promotional mix * Advertising- * paid (for space and time)and nonpersonal * mass * hard to receive feedback * Cost is the most important advertising factor * Personal selling- * Face to face (customized) * Choose whom to sell too * Immediate feedback * Detailed info and persuasive * expensive * Public relations- * Mass * Improve public image * No payment to media * Events, lobbying, press conferences, publicity * Sales promotion * Mass * Coupons, rebates, samples, contests * Change behavior in short run * abused * Direct marketing * Direct mail, catalogs,telephone, internet * Customized to relationship with customer * Constantly manage database | advantage | Disad | tV ad | Large audience, | High cost, short exposure, hard to remember | Radio | Low cost, local audience, | No visual, short exposure, hard to remember | magazine | Specific audience, long life, complex info | High cost, no forced exposure | newspaper | Can be saved, low costs, local audience | Poor visuals, no forced exposure, short use | Yellow pages | Long use period, local | Listed with other competitors, hard to keep up to date | internet | Video and audio capable, interactive, direct link to site, direct marketing | ? | outdoor | Low cost, local market, high visibility, repeat exposure | Short message, low audience selection, | Direct mail | High selective, complex info, personal info | High cost her contact, bad image(junk mail) |
Advertisement types * Pioneering * Create awareness * Competitive * Compare to competitors * Reminder * Valentines day
CPM =cost per thousand, analyze audience size * CPM=Cost/audience#/1000 * media kit- ?? * circulation- number of units carrying advertising * effective audience- # of audience in target group
Reach & frequency * reach- % of people in target market exposed to the ad campaign during a given period * Frequency: how many times the average person in the target market is exposed in a given period * GRP(gross rating points)= reach*frequency
Advertising timing patterns * Concentrated- one time of year * Continuous- all year. (could be pulsing) * Intermittent- example-end of each month, or once every 3 days, effective advertising teqniques? * Dove, or ford fiesta( get influential people to spread word about product to create buzz)
EXECUTING THE ADVERTISING PROGRAM * Pretests * Portfolio tests-consumer given a portfolio with many advertisements and ask to rate them. * Jury Tests- share a commercial to a group (can be biased) * Theater tests- show a series of commercials and ask if any stood out. (non biased) * Post tests * Aided recall- do you remember a specific commercial? * Unaided recall- vague, what adds do you remember seeing?
Promotions-incentives, effect short term sale,
Push and pull promotional strategies * Push strategy- manufacturer pushes wholesale who then pushes retail who pushes customer to buy through deals and incentives. * Pull strategy- manufacturer promotion and advertising to consumer who pulls(requests) from retailer who pulls from wholesaler who pulls from manufacturer.
Problems with promotion * No loyalty from customers * Can be abused
Look at kind of sales promotions on slide “sessions advertising”. Know a few basics
-direct communication with customers to generate a response. Can generate immediate response
- can be