A consumer’s knowledge for a brand or a product is contained in a schema. A schema is a type of associative network that works as a cognitive representation of a phenomenon that provides meaning to that entity.
Exemplar – An exemplar is a concept within a schema that is the single best representative of some category. Exemplars vary from person to person. For example, an exemplar for sports could be Tiger Woods, and an exemplar of a vacation destination could be Disneyworld. Exhibit 4.10 illustrates other possible category exemplars.
Prototype – A prototype is a conglomeration of the most associated characteristics of a category. For example, a car salesperson might not conjure up a picture of a particular exemplar, but several characteristics of a salesperson may come to mind.
The Vodafone Group claims to be the world's leading mobile telecommunications company, with a significant presence in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia Pacific and the United States through the Company's subsidiary undertakings, joint ventures, associated undertakings and investments.
In Australia, Vodafone is operated by Vodafone Hutchison Australia a 50:50 joint
Venture between Vodafone Group and Hutchison 3G Australia.”
Vodafone customers have reported numerous problems with the services they have been provided. Vodafail has recorded complaints from some customers who say they have been experiencing problems with the network for up to 12 months. From an analysis of the stories posted on Vodafail.com, the following issues have been
Vodafone customers have reported an excess of issues relating to all aspects of their mobile phone service. However the reception issues are worse for those who rely on the Vodafone
3G network, as evidenced by recommendations from Vodafone staff members to turn off 3G for fewer dropped calls and better reception. More than half the comments received by
Vodafail relate to reception and network problems.
A brand embodies the organization, product, person or issue it represents. It evokes an emotional response, and it supports positioning, messaging and marketing efforts.
The more effective a brand is, the greater its success in connecting with a market. It follows that the more that can be done to refine a brand, to ensure it resonates with target customers and prospects, the stronger the marketing programs and resulting brand awareness will be.
Most authors define positioning as the perception that a target market has of a brand relative to its competitors.
This definition raises two points. First, positioning is perceptual. In other words, positioning is not factual; instead it pertains to influencing customer perceptions of your product.
Second, companies cannot position brands in isolation; they must be positioned relative to one or more competitors. By nature, human beings learn by making comparisons. When we learn new information, one way we remember and use that information is by mentally comparing it to existing information. Therefore, it’s only