The division of labor, as described by Marx, is directly responsible for the development of nations. A nation with further divisions within the work force is an advanced nation. A nation with more complex divisions will also have differing relations between people and property. Marx goes on to label the stages of human history through the divisions of labor. The first stage is known as tribal, a sort of primitive communism in which there was no hierarchal structure, and therefore no property owned. The tribes would then move either through conquest or agreement into the communal, city-state second stage in which slavery begins and the aristocracy is born. These cities begin to connect into feudal kingdoms, the third stage, where the aristocracy rules over the serfs as once the slaves were ruled, and the guilds begin.
The writings concerning base and superstructure begin with an explanation of human needs, as well as the economic and social activities that produce the superstructure of a society. He then goes on to say that as the forces of production improve (jobs, technology), old forces are rendered useless, and thus the class struggle is born. When base changes, the revolutionary class rises to the top, and its ideas become the major and popular ideas that change the whole of the superstructure.