Abraham Maslow is a humanistic psychologist concern with the nature of human experiences. He carried out a research in order to understand what actually motivates people, Maslow believed that human’s possesses a set of motivation methods unrelated to the conditioning theories which are classical conditioning (reward) by Ivan Pavlov (14 September] 1849 – 27February 1936) and operant conditioning (reinforcement) by B.F Skinner (1948). Maslow (1943) in his article called the theory of human motivation; he presented the idea that human actions are directed towards goal attainment. He stated that people are driven to achieve certain needs. These achievements are laid out in 5 stages in order of importance from the least been biological and physiological needs to the highest been self actualisation. Unless one need is met the others cannot be met and sometime some behaviour could help satisfy two or more needs.
These needs are called motivators, they motivate people. When they are not met, there tend to be deprivation or deficiency. The longer it takes to satisfy a need, the stronger the desire to achieve it. These needs are divided into two; the deprivation or deficiency needs (basic needs) and the growth needs. As the basic or deficiency needs are met, higher needs become the primary motivator of behaviour.
The four first stages in the hierarchy is known as the deficiency needs. Physiological needs, the lowest level of the hierarchy includes water, air, food, shelter, cloths, sleep, sex etc these are the basic needs that tends to satisfy the most but becomes predominant when these needs are not met. For example, water and air are the two most important elements of life and are very useful to human existence. Food, shelter, warmth (clothe) and sleep are also vital to man for survival, because lack of food could cause death, whereas sleep, warmth (clothe) and shelter are essential daily activities. Sex which is always the least is also important for reproduction which is also a prime motivator and the main reason for our endeavour.
When the physiological needs are met a new set of needs relating to safety emerges which is known as the safety needs. The safety needs includes health, physical safety, finance,l security, law, order, stability, protection from element, freedom from fear. These safety needs are very important but not as important as physiological needs e.g. a person can be homeless and survive but cannot survive without food or drink. When the safety needs are threatened a person becomes more concern with him/herself running from danger and seeking security or peace. As with the physiological needs, safety needs cease to be dominant when they are met.
When the safety needs has been fairly met, the needs of love and belonging emerges as a person seek to become part of the society. These needs include friendship, intimacy, affection, and love from -work group, family, friends, and romantic relationships. The love needs are greater than the physiological desire to…