Mass. Officials Warn of Bottled Water Taint Essay

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GRP pipe for Turkish irrigation project
Kemal Tunç, General Manager of Turkish pipe manufacturer Subor, explains how the company has become a preferred supplier of glass reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes for irrigation projects in the country.


s one of the most important natural resources, water plays a great role both in Turkey and the rest of the world. Today, a vital requirement is the more efficient use of water.
In Turkey, 74% of water useage is for irrigation in agricultural projects and therefore the largest savings must be made in this area. However, when using conventional irrigation systems in Turkey nearly 50% of the water supplied is wasted as a result of leakage in transfer and network lines, evaporation and operational losses. In other

words, open system irrigation projects
(which are constructed at ground level and open to the atmosphere) consume 2 m3 of water for every 1 m3 reaching the plants.
This not only leads to the waste of already restricted water resources, but also to the construction of distribution and drainage networks with larger capacities, eventually leading to increased costs plus additional energy consumption for systems equipped with pumping facilities. On top of this, irrigation projects must pay for the water they use, increasing the importance of saving water.

GRP pipe
The Devlet Su Isleri (DSI) (State Hydraulic
Works) Directorate General, part of the
Ministry of Environment and Forest, is in charge of the planning, management, development and operation of all of
Turkey’s water resources. It is responsible for the planning, project development, construction and operation of the potable and freshwater supply and irrigation networks for urban areas with a population over 100 000, along with dams and hydroelectric power plants. DSI is also responsible for the most efficient use of these water resources. Headquartered in Ankara, the organisation consists of regional directorates.
The efforts of the DSI have led to increased awareness of water consumption nationwide, leading to an accelerated switch over to the closed (piped) system in irrigation projects. As a consequence, leakage, evaporation and operational losses in the transfer and network lines will be avoided by the closed pipe system buried several metres underground.

Subor is currently supplying GRP pipes of 4 m in diameter to the ‘Kralkizi Dicle Main Channel Second Part
Irrigation Project’ in Turkey. The pipes are manufactured using a continuous filament winding process.




Previously, the only alternative for large diameter pipes in irrigation and small hydro power plant (SHPP) projects was steel. However, issues such as corrosion of metal and concrete based pipes used in infrastructure projects and increased level of service breakdowns, resulting from

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incorrect installation in particular, have led infrastructure investors to consider new materials. The use of glass fibre reinforced polyester, which is more corrosion resistant than metal, is becoming increasingly widespread in infrastructure applications. Considering the future needs of the market and at the height of the economic crisis in 2009, Subor Pipe Industry And
Trade Inc invested in a new manufacturing line which is capable of producing
GRP pipes up to DN 4000 mm in diameter. Subor is a preferred supplier of pipe systems to the irrigation projects overseen by the DSI.

Kralkizi irrigation project
Subor is currently supplying GRP pipes of
4 m in diameter to the ‘Kralkizi Dicle Main
Channel Second Part Irrigation Project.’
This is the first time pipes of this size have been manufactured in Turkey.
This project within the city borders of
Diyarbakir comes under the scope of the
Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) – one of the biggest regional development