* Prince/Princess – From the Latin princeps, meaning "first person" or "first citizen." The title was originally used by Augustus at the establishment of the Roman Empire to avoid the political risk of assuming the title Rex ("King") in what was technically still a revolutionary republic. In modern times, the title is often given to the sons and daughters of ruling monarchs. Also a title of certain ruling monarchs under the Holy Roman Empire and its subsidiary territories until 1918 (still survives in Liechtenstein, and also in Monaco although that is elsewhere), and in Imperial Russia before 1917. The German title is Fürst ("first") is a translation of the Latin term; the equivalent Russian term is князь (knyaz). * Archduke/Archduchess – A title derived from the Greek Archon ("ruler; higher") and the Latin Dux("leader"). It was used most notably by the Habsburg Dynasty that ruled Austria and Hungary until 1918 * Grand Duke/Grand Duchess. "Big; large" + Latin Dux (leader). A variant of "Archduke," used particularly in English translations Romanov Dynasty Russian titles. Also used in various Germanic territories until World War I. Still survives in Luxembourg. * Duke (the feminine equivalent is Duchess) from the Latin Dux, a military title used in the Roman Empire, especially in its early Byzantine period when it designated the military commander for a specific zone. * Marquis or Marquess (the feminine equivalent is Marquise or Marchioness) from the French marchis, literally "ruler of a border area," (from Old French marche meaning "border"); exact English translation is "March Lord," or "Lord of the March." * Count (the feminine equivalent is Countess) from the Latin comes meaning "companion." The word was used by the Roman Empire in its Byzantine period as an honorific with a meaning roughly equivalent to modern English "peer." It became the title of those who commanded field armies in the Empire, as opposed to "Dux" which commanded locally based forces. * Earl (used in the United Kingdom instead of Count, but the feminine equivalent is Countess) From the Germanic jarl, meaning "chieftain," the title was brought to the British Isles by the Anglo-Saxons and survives in use only there having been superseded in Scandinavia and the continent. * Viscount (feminine equivalent is Viscountess) From the Latin vicarius (Deputy; substitute. Hence "vicar" and prefix "vice-") appended to Latin comes. Literally: "Deputy Count" * Baron (the feminine equivalent is Baroness) From the Late Latin Baro, meaning "man, servant, soldier" the title originally designated the chief feudal tenant of a place, who was in vassalage to a greater lord.
In the United Kingdom, "Lord" and "Lady" are used as titles for members of the nobility. Unlike titles such as "Mr" and "Mrs", they are not
GP NOTES 2010 (ESSAY)
a. New vs. Traditional
b. New: narcissistic?
c. Government Censorship
d. Profit-driven Media
f. Private life of public figures
g. Celebrity as a role model
h. Blame media for our problems
i. Power + Responsibility of Media
j. Media ethics
k. New Media and Democracy
a. Science and Ethics
b. Government and scientist role in science
c. Rely too much on technology?
d. Nuclear technology…