Matman: Materials Science and Hardness Test Method Essay

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Allotropic

Amorphous
Constituent particles form a shapeless structure Angstrom x 10-10 m Annealing
A heat treatment method that increases ductility, removes strain hardening & stresses Aspiration

Austenite

Bainite

Bernouillis theorem

Body centred cubic

Brinell
A hardness test method that makes use of a steel ball, normally 10mm diameter Brittleness

Carburising
The diffusion of carbon into the surface of steel to harden it Cementite

Chaplets

Charpy
A toughness test Cleavage
Transcrystalline fracture along crystal boundaries Columnar grains

Covalent

Crystalline
Composed of crystal structure; consistent, ordered structure repeated through the material. Dendrite

Diffusion
The movement of atoms within a solid liquid or gas due to desire to increase entropy Dislocation
A type of defect in crystals whereby the atoms are out of position. Dispersion strengthening

Embryo
Nucleation begins here Enthalpy
Energy change (H) Entropy
Disorder- systems always seek maximum disorder e.g. Two gasses spontaneously mixing Epitaxial
The continued growth of a crystal by atoms attaching themselves to the crystal structure- this creates directional crystal growth Equiaxed

Eutectic
The point on a phase diagram where Face centred cubic

Ferrite

Fluidity

Grain Growth
Highest annealing temp, encourages growth of grains. Decreased strength. Usually undesirable Grain size strengthening

Grey iron

Hardenability

Hardness
The measure of a materials resistance to material indentation or abrasion Heterogeneous nucleation
Takes place with solid imputies in the liquid eg. Container walls or solid particles Heterogeneous

Hexagonal close packed

Homogeneous
A solution that is consistent throughout e.g. air Homogeneous nucleation
Takes place in a liquid without any other impurities or surfaces present Hypoeutectic

Inoculant

Insolubility
e.g. oil and water Intergranular
(fracture) through grain boundaries Interstitial
Small atoms fit in the spaces of a crystal strucure Izod
A toughness test Knoop
A microhardness test that makes use of a small indenter, perfect for thin or brittle materials. Lamellae

Lamellar

Lattice

Liquidus
The upper phase boundary- the point at which materials begin to freeze Malleable

Martensite

Microsegregation
Chemical separation and concentration of alloy elements Microstructure
The structure of a material at the micro scale Near net
Close to the final shape desired Nodular

Nucleation
The first step in forming a crystal Pearlite

Polycrystalline

Polymorphic

Precipitation (age) hardening

Proeutectoid

Recrystallization
Higher annealing than recovery, distorted grains replaced with new strain free ones. Creates fine grain…