Mdma: Drug Addiction and Mdma Essay

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MDMA

Weber State University

The chemical name for the drug MDMA is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. It is also commonly known as Ecstacy, XTC, E, X, or Molly for recreational users. MDMA was first synthesized in 1912 at a pharmaceutical company in Germany. When MDMA was created there was no specified use for the drug. Unlike marijuana or opium which is harvested, MDMA is a synthetic drug. (Ecstasy.ws, 2014) In the 1980's MDMA became known to a number of psychiatrists who used the drug as a part of their therapy. They had a belief that MDMA had the ability to enhance empathy and they even suggested using the name empathogens, which means generating a state of empathy, to describe MDMA. After years of hesitations and reversals, the Drug Enforcement Administration put MDMA permenently on the Schedule I list of controlled substances in 1985, and said that there is no accepted medical use for the drug. (Levinthal, 2014) MDMA's source is from two synthetic hallucinogens related to norepinephrine. The botanical sources for MDMA are from amanita muscaria or ibontenic acid. (Levinthal, 2014) MDMA users take a pill, tablet, or capsule that is usually colorful with images on them. MDMA is usually taken orally and taken with other drugs such as LSD or mushrooms. There is a nickname for this called “hippy flipping” or “candy flipping.” This term “flipping” came from the effects of using both drugs together that may shift rapidly from a more lucid state to a more psychedelic state several times during the experience. Some users prefer using mentholated products such as menthol cigarettes, Vicks VapoRub, and NyQuil to give them a more cooling sensations while on MDMA. (teens.drugabuse, 2014) When a MDMA user takes a pill they usually call this a “hit.” For most users each “hit” will last them for about 3 to 6 hours. As soon as the pill is swallowed the effects enter the bloodstream and reach the brain within about 15 minutes. The user will experience the full “high” within about 45 minutes after taking the “hit.” The user will usually feel very alert or “hyper” at first. They also have an enhanced sense of touch. That is only the common immediate effects, others have said that they experience negative effects right away and become anxious, agitated, and they feel faint or dizzy. People that use MDMA often have been known to chew on pacifiers because the drug can also cause muscle tension, nausea, blurred vision, and increased heart rate and blood pressure. The pacifiers help to relieve some of the tension from that. MDMA isn't always just a one night effect though, some have said the “high” lasts several days or a week. (teens.drugabuse, 2014) MDMA can potentially be a very dangerous drug to users. Some of the possible physical effects include: hyperthermia and heatstroke, dehydration, kidney and liver failure, and long-term neurochemical changes. Some of the possible psychological effects are agitation and confusion, depression and anxiety, and impairments in memory recall. (Levinthal, 2014) In January 2001, there was a clinical research conducted showing an overview of the subjective side effects of MDMA. The researchers found a number of common side effects. The top side effects reported were difficultly concentrating, jaw clenching or grinding of the teeth, lack of appetite, and dry mouth. (ecstasy.ws, 2008) We still do not know whether MDMA causes long-term brain damage in humans, or whether the effects are reversible when someone stops using the drug. There was a study of animals that showed exposure to high doses of MDMA for 4 days produced brain damage that could still be seen 6 to 7 years later. (teens.drugabuse, 2014) MDMA has many consequences including death. There have been hundreds of deaths connected to the use of MDMA since the 1980's. One way death happens is because of overheating. Overheating can happen in a variety of…