A.) Summary: Hedonism means: The belief that the point of living is to enjoy life and that accordingly the best life is the most pleasurable. When discussing hedonism, there are many different versions to extrapolate upon. The word ‘hedonism’ comes from the ancient Greek word for ‘pleasure’. Psychological or motivational hedonism claims that only pleasure or pain motivates us. Ethical or evaluative hedonism claims that only pleasure has worth or value and only pain or displeasure has disvalue or the opposite of worth. “Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain, and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do” (Feldman 2004). Aristotle (Blake 1920) claimed that we all agree that the good is pleasurable but there is disagreement among us about what pleasure is (15). Similarly, most ethical hedonists in Graham’s book, agree with one another that the good is pleasure, but there is some disagreement among them, about what pleasure is. Aristotle (Graham 2004) also believed that it is Hedonists are right to want a pleasant life, and the pleasantest life is a happy one. The value of such a life is two fold- pleasure and happiness. But, the pleasure arises from the happiness. So if we want to know what a "good life" is- a sort of life we ought to take pleasure in- we need to know more about happiness than pleasure (50). An alternate form of Hedonism was named by Epicurus. An "epicure" is someone who savors the finer things in life- good wine, good food, good company, literature, dress, etc. This philosophy is based on the ideology of the love for these finer things, but not in excess and certainly not to the point where pain would be an outcome. Epicurus also believed that many times, these "good things in life" must be an "acquired taste or pleasure". The philosophy of the acquired taste brings to light an important question: If Epicureans believe that a life of pleasure must be acquired, can it continue to claim the natural appeal that is hedonism's greatest appeal over other philosophies? Meaning if the appeal isn't naturally there and needs to be learned or acquired is it truly hedonistic? John Stuart Mill proposes another belief or form of hedonism. Mill thought there were important differences between the various lives that people can lead. The differences cannot always be straightforwardly explained in terms of pleasure. In his attempt at explaining hedonism, Mill introduced the distinction of higher and lower pleasures. Pleasure is still the touchstone of value, but some pleasures are better or more significant, than others. Mill often explains this with quantity- a higher pleasure brings more pleasure. Mill also maintained that higher pleasures brought a higher quality of pleasure. This entire philosophy brings with it a rational of choice, i.e.- the examples of Shakespeare vs. Dallas or opera vs. country music- is one more pleasurable than the other. Mill’s arguments for the proposition that higher pleasures are more valuable than lower ones, is put into five elements: first, there are qualitative differences between pleasures, merely as pleasures; second, the estimation of pleasures is determined by both the quantity and quality of the pleasures; third, some qualities are superior and therefore more valuable; four, the judgment of the experienced is the only way to determine whether one pleasure has superiority in quality to another; five, the judgment of the experienced will be that those pleasures derived from the distinctively human faculties are qualitatively superior to those from animal appetites. And yet, one additional form of hedonism is called sadism. Thoroughgoing hedonists insist that, in so far as it is true that a torturer gets just as much pleasure from her trade as does the healer, the torturer and the healer lead equally good lives, then an appeal to alleged differences between the two cannot provide
1. Low order, simple, or base enjoyment(emotional & physical)
2. Pleasure as the necessary and sufficient element of a good life
3. Hedonism without foresight(non-philosophical)
4. Psychological Hedonism(Freud/Epicurus)
B. Eudaimonia(Virtue of character)
1. Higher order enjoyment(intelligence & virtue)
2. Activity of the rational soul in accordance with virtue
3. Without autonomy and reason pleasure has little or no value
needs shared by all people. Among these are existential concerns about life’s challenges which motivate people in different ways. One of the five major existential concerns is the concern about one’s own death, which encourages the need to maintain life. Some speculate that many psychological needs are derived from the five primary existential concerns, such as the need for safety stems from the concern about death (Deckers, 2010).
One more internal source of motivation are emotions. In fact…
and the author does not directly tell us whether or not Jig will take the operation. It leaves readers enough space to have their own understanding, which is called “Zero-degree Ending”. There are many objectives in the story standing for different meanings, especially the “white elephants” of the title, which implies the deep theme of the story. The story is the best one to show the “Iceberg Theory” of Hemingway.
Specifically, “Iceberg Theory” including three aspects which are concise language, symbolism…
Compare Jeremy Bentham’s version of hedonism with John Stuart Mill’s. Is either version adequate?
Bentham and Mill are proponents of classical utilitarianism, a moral theory underpinned by two elements, consequentialism and hedonism. Utilitarianism, derived from the word utility meaning usefulness, holds that the merit of an action is to be judged only by the extent to which its outcome or consequence is useful or increases welfare of the individual or wider society, (Barber.,p.52). According…
are how they view life and death, one is their own redeemer, fully responsible for their own life, view of drugs and alcohol.
To Satanists they believe that life is therefore something to be enjoyed to its fullest. Satanists are encouraged to embrace whatever it is that they enjoy, living full, sensual, self-indulgent lives. To them there is no heaven or hell that is non existent. Life is important not death, there is no one in the next life that will judge you or punishment. "Life is one great indulgence;…
Amicable - Friendly, Peaceful
Enamored - Charmed or fascinated;inflamed with love.
Amorous - Having or showing srong feelings of attraction or love
Paramour - A lover, often secret, not allowed by law or custom.
BELL comes from Latin word meaning of war
Antebellum - Existing before a war, especially before the American Civil War.
Bellicose - Warlike, aggressive, quarrelsome.
Belligerence - Aggressiveness, Combativeness.
Rebellion - Open defiance and opposition, sometimes armed, to a person…
of Sakyas displease with the problem of suffering in the world Siddhartha became a holy man to seek the meaning of it, he sat under a bodi tree fasting and meditating until he found enlightenment. Buddhism teaches to have respect for nature, cleanliness, love for simple things, and good manners. The basic understanding of Buddhism comes from the Four Noble Truths and the eight noble paths, life means suffering, the origin of suffering is attachment, the cessation of suffering is attainable and the…
"Ethics" is the name of a branch of philosophy, which is the attempt to answer the most fundamental questions of human life by means of reason alone, rather than faith or tradition. Ethics is the continuing effort on the part of the human race to rationally analyze and evaluate the principles and ideals that might help us to understand which ways of life are most admirable and worth living, and which actions are right or wrong.
At the beginning of medieval thought was a struggle to merge…
ideas of qualities of life, kinds of satisfaction, three dimensions of happiness, and Aristotle’s thought of happiness hold a singular concept which is there are various sources or determinants of happiness. Happiness of an individual is immensely affected by different factors both internal…