Med Bac Essay examples

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Medical Bacteriology
Final Exam Study Guide

2012
Darian Harris

Prion Diseases definitions: 1. PrP- prion protein 2. Viroid- small, circular, single strands of RNA. Viroids are the smallest known pathogens. * No capsid * Replicated in the host cell nucleus 3. Prions- proteinaceous infectious agents * No nucleic acid * Host protein produced and found in neurons * Prion protein particle is infectious 4. CT scan- computerized tomography scan 5. MRI- magnetic resonance imaging 6. EEG- electroencephalogram
Examples of prion diseases * BSE= Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (cattle) * CJD= Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (humans) * GSS= Gerstmann-Scheinker syndrome (humans) * Scrapie (sheep and goats)
More info * Prion diseases are fatal * Prions diseases occur as transmissible diseases, sporadic, hereditary, or iatrogenic

Diseases of the central nervous system
Purple= Acute meningitis
Green= Chronic brain abscess
Blue= Acute encephalitis
*also chronic meningitis
**also acute meningitis

More info * Can be spread by the neural route 1. Herpes-simplex virus 1 i) Causes encephalitis 2. Herpes-simplex virus 2 i) Causes encephalitis 3. Varicella-zoster virus i) Causes encephalitis * Can be spread by the hematogenous route 1. West Nile virus (bite of an arthropod) i) Causes encephalitis 2. Rabies virus (bite of a mammal) i) Causes encephalitis 3. Rubella virus (transplacentally) * know the three w’s: who, where, and when

respiratory system infections
Viruses
Rhinovirus- causes pharyngitis and the common cold, found in the nasopharynx (grows at 33°C)
Adenovirus- found in the oropharynx, causes pharyngitis
Coronavirus- causes pharyngitis and the common cold, found in the nasopharynx
Epstein-Barr virus- causes mononucleosis and pharyngitis, found in the oropharynx
Herpes simplex virus
Parainfluenza virus- causes pharyngitis, found in the larynx-trachea
Influenza virus- causes acute tracheobronchitis and pharyngitis, found in the bronchi
Bacteria
Staphylococcus aureus- community and hospital acquired pneumonia, found in the nasopharynx
Haemophilus influenza- acute laryngitis and community and hospital acquired pneumonia
Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae- community acquired pneumonia
Mycoplasma pneumoniae- community acquired pneumonia and pharyngitis, found in the bronchi
Corynebacterium diphtheria- pharyngitis, found in the oropharynx
Chlamydia pneumonia- pharyngitis and community acquired pneumonia
Bordetella pertussis- whooping cough
Klebsiella pneumonia- community and hospital acquired pneumonia
Serratia marcescens- hospital acquired pneumonia
Moraxella catarrhalis- community acquired pneumonia and laryngitis, found in the middle ear and sinuses
Ureaplasma urealyticum- pneumonia in infants and young children
Pseudomonas aeruginosa- hospital acquired pneumonia
Yersinia Pestis- plague, transmitted by animals
Coxiella burnetii- Q fever, transmitted by animals
Legionella pneumophila- Legionnaire disease, transmitted by contaminated water
Francisella tularensis- Tularemia, transitted by infected animals or ticks

Urinary tract infections * Most UTIs are caused by fecal organisms (E. coli) * The bladder (cystitis) and the kidney (pyleonephritis) are the most common areas infected * Strict anaerobic bacteria rarely cause UTIs * Complicated UTIs= structural abnormalities of the urinary tract * Uncomplicated UTIs= no anatomic abnormalities * Bacteriuria= bacteria in the urine * Causative Organisms: 1. Escherichia coli 2. Staphylococcus saprophyticus 3. Candida albicans 4. Chlamydiae 5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6. Enterobacter
Diseases of the skin and soft tissues

* Cellular damage caused by exogenous (external environment), endogenous (internal source), and toxin-induced infection (produced by…