med techl final exam review Essay

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Final Exam Review Sheet

1. Causes of Celiac Disease
Celiac disease is a digestive autoimmune disorder that causes damage in the lining of the small intestine when foods with gluten are eaten. Glutens are a form of protein found in some grains. The damage to the intestine makes it hard for the body to absorb nutrients especially fat, calcium, iron and folate. The body’s immune system is designed to protect it from foreign invaders. When people with celiac disease eat foods containing gluten, there immune system forms antibodies to gluten which affect the intestinal lining. This causes inflammation in the intestines and damages the villi. (Villi are hair like structures on the lining of the small intestine). Nutrients from food are usually absorbed by the villi. If the villi are damaged the person cannot absorb nutrients properly and ends up malnourished no matter how much they eat.

2. Describe the Term Hiatal Hernia
Anytime that an internal body part pushes into an area where it doesn’t belong it’s called a hernia. The hiatus is an opening in the diaphragm, usually the esophagus (food pipe) goes through the hiatus and attaches to the stomach, but in a hiatal hernia the stomach bulges up into the chest through that opening. Two main types of hiatal hernias are sliding and paraesophageal (next to the esophagus).
Sliding Hiatal Hernia – is the most common type of hernia. In a sliding hiatal hernia the stomach and the part of the esophagus that joins the stomach slide up into the chest through the hiatus.
Paraesophageal Hernia- is less common but more concerning. Part of the stomach squeezes through the hiatus landing next to the esophagus. Even though u may not have symptoms it’s dangerous because the stomach can become “strangled” and have its blood supply shut off.

3. Describe the Prevalence of Crohn’s Disease
On average people are more frequently diagnosed with Crohn’s disease between the ages of 15 and 25 although the disease can occur at any age.
Crohn’s disease can occur in people who are 70 or older and in young children as well on average 10.7 of those affected are under the age of 18.

4. Describe the Treatments of Appendicitis
An Appendectomy: the surgical removal of the appendix
Antibiotic Treatment
5. Symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis
Abdominal pain in the LLQ and RLQ
Rectal Bleeding
Weight loss
Diarrhea
A fever lasting more than 2 days
Loss of Appetite/ bodily fluids/ Nutrients
Fatigue

6. List the Causes of Peptic Ulcers
A peptic ulcer is a defect in the lining of the stomach or the first part of the small intestine, an area called the duodenum. A peptic ulcer in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer. An ulcer in the duodenum is called a duodenal ulcer. Peptic ulcers are caused by Helicobacter Pylori- Responsible for 80% of all gastric ulcers 95% duodenal ulcers.
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs- Responsible for the remaining percentage if
Both respectively.
Genetics Smoking
Alcohol Consumption
Mental Stress

7. Identify Symptoms of Peptic Ulcers
Vomiting Blood: hematemesis
Black tarry stool: melena
Nausea/vomiting
Indigestion pain
Vomiting after consumption
Regurgitating food
Sick feeling after eating
Weight loss
Difficulty swallowing food

8. Symptoms Associated With Dyspepsia
Indigestion (dyspepsia) is a mild discomfort in the upper belly or abdomen,it occurs during or right after eating.
Nausea
Regurgitation (backwash of stomach contents into the esophagus/mouth
Vomiting
Heartburn
Bloating
9. Causes Of Salmonella salmonella infection is a foodborne illness caused by the salmonella bacteria carried by some animals, which can be transmitted from kitchen surfaces and can be in water, soil, animal feces, raw meats, and eggs.
Animals and their environments ( reptiles, birds, amphibians, and pet food/treats)
Contaminated foods ( eggs, poultry, raw fruits, nuts, spices, veggies, unpasteurized dairy or juice)

10. Describe the Reactions Involved in…