Pedro Hespanha Introduction Social policies are intervention instruments developed by the state to provide for the wellbeing and social protection of citizens and include actions to prevent social risk or to resolve existing social problems. In the case of the poor, social policies cover a wide range of problems and aim to respond in ways which ensure minimum standards of wellbeing. Although the range and effectiveness of these policies varies greatly from one society to another, in general the aim of meeting minimum social needs has failed to come up to expectations. In the case of Portugal possibly with the exception of basic education and the social insertion income scheme - it cannot be said, in all honesty, that minimum social entitlements exist. They do not exist in many areas such as housing, welfare, employment, transport. Health is a very problematic area in this respect since, despite the existence of a universal National Health Service, in most cases the poorest members of society do not benefit from prompt, quality care. Social policies targeted at the poorest members of society are implemented by the social services, characterised by benefits that are difficult to enforce and a low budget. Most of these services are run by voluntary non-profit organizations in exchange for agreed financial transfers. Some of these organizations, such as the Misericrdias, have a long history of helping the poorest members of society and are therefore able to exert considerable pressure on the state to delegate powers to combat poverty to them. Finally, measures designed to fight poverty are increasingly being developed through projects financed by European programmes or other external sources of funding. Unlike the current work of the bureaucratic social services, project-based actions are characterised by their experimental nature and the fact that they operate within a limited time and space and are normally managed by partnerships between public and private institutions. Within this organisational framework, it is important to analyse the relationship between professionals and the policies they implement, as well as the relationship between professionals and institutions with regard to the implementation of these policies. One initial observation that should be made prior to our analysis concerns the ambiguous status of social policies regarding their mission to reduce inequality. It is known that one of the main problems of social policies nowadays, and a source of great disillusionment, lies precisely in the fact that there is a huge gap between their stated principles (the rhetoric of solidarity and emancipation) and the practical implementation of measures (the placebo effect, regulation of the poor, workfare). Moreover, there is a feeling that reducing inequality and fighting poverty are minor concerns for the state and that society itself, through its elites and leaders, is not sufficiently committed to reinforcing these objectives and bringing pressure to bear on ending the causes of poverty. Nevertheless, changes have been introduced that are aimed at improving policies. Charges of inefficiency and the generation of dependency have led to the emergence of new forms of policies, either in combination with old policies or as a replacement for them. Essentially, the new generation of social policies favours social integration rather than subsidising risks and includes i. the active involvement of beneficiaries in planning and choosing programmes rather than their passive submission to actions decided by professionals ii. personalised rather than standard forms of assistance iii. joint responsibility on the part of the provider and the beneficiary for the implementation of programmes iv. decentralised planning of social programmes v. partnerships with local institutions for the management of decentralised programmes vi. an approach based on proximity rather than distant solicitude and vii. flexible rather than
living rooms of America – not on the battlefields of Vietnam.’ (Marshall McLuhan, 1975). What evidence exists to demonstrate that the American media coverage of the Vietnam War influenced its outcome?
There are only two comprehensive inferences that can be drawn upon when assessing the impact and legacy of the reporting of the Vietnam War on America and its media; the impact was enormous and its legacy unending. More than thirty years have passed since the American military withdrew from Vietnam, and…
Facts and Myths about problem gambling in Australia
On 29 November 2012, the Federal Parliament passed gambling reform legislation that will see the most significant and far reaching national reforms put in place to reduce the harm from poker machines.
There continues to be strong interest in our community about these changes and how they apply to gambling venues so it is important that Australians have the facts on what is happening.
These changes are designed to help protect…
“Semiotics -provides useful tools for understanding and analysing adtexts – their meanings and the sociopolitical effects they produce. Using critical tools such as sign, signifier, signified, connotation, denotation, myth, representation, discourse etc., critically analyse three adtexts: discuss the ways in which meaning is made, as well as the possible effects of such meaning.”
The purpose of this critical analysis is to compare and contrast three magazine adtexts using the understanding…
Non-Print Media Critique
The Visual Portfolio in the chapter “Money and Success: The Myth of Individual Opportunity” included portraits that involved the successes and declines of individuals in America. The portrait of the Tent City (p. 328), located in Sacramento, California, is a visual aid for Maria Ganga “Tent City, USA”. This image taken by an unknown photographer has captured the shocking sites of “Tent City” article that was published in the Los Angeles Times. This image was used to inform…
Gendered Media: The Influence of Media on Views of Gender
Julia T. Wood
Department of Communication, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill times more often than ones about women (“Study Reports Sex Bias,” 1989), media misrepresent actual proportions of men and women in the population. This constant distortion tempts us to believe that there really are more men than women and, further, that men are the cultural standard.
THEMES IN MEDIA
Of the many influences on how we view…
evidence found by experts to back it up. This evidence helps to disprove the negative connotations and myths given to the LGTB community for raising children in a non-traditional home and parental setting. This paper incorporates contrastive points of view on this specific issue allowing for a wider perspective on every side to the issue. With the research and evidence illegitimatizing the negative myths of LBGT adoption, the acceptance will increase.
FAMILY IS FAMILY 3
Through the act…
assignment was to explore my personal feelings regarding the culture I have chosen to explore. My collage reflects both, but also the stereotypical misconceptions and truths regarding the BDSM Community. While it is true that I have busted some "myths", I have also tried to understand my reactions to the information and to the people I have met while doing this research. The experience is an interesting peek at the BDSM culture as well as an opportunity to explore community perceptions and beliefs…
In this modern world that allows consumers access to dozens of instances of media advertisements per day (consciously, or sub-consciously), it is important to be able to recognize and interpret advertisements on a deeper level. These advertisements are comprised of several codes and conventions that are designed to attract attention to certain attributes of a product in order to sell it to the chosen target market. One effective method of targeting and selling a product to a specific demographic…
all you can possibly sum it up to. Things like television, magazines, books, even music play a big part in our lives. And as we’ve learned, they have a lot to do with our views on a range of different topics, especially ones related to gender. Mass media does a horrible job at representing gender. Don’t believe me? Next time you’re watching your favorite TV show and those pesky stream of ads come along and try to ruin the experience, instead of changing the channel actually watch a few of them. More…
the best scientists and mathematical geniuses out there.
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