The Symposium is difficult to decipher, given the remote access I am permitted to the context of it's creation, but I believe that by first attempting to select Plato's motivations when writing it, one can gain a better lens with which to interpret it's intended meaning, and subsequently judge its truth values. Some of the writing may be focused as a critique on the Athenian convention of Paiderastia, or the normal practive of teenage boys (erômenos, pais) taking on an older lover (erastês) whom is meant to instill virtue unto the young lover. Thus, Socrates' instillation of Platonic love and mental reproduction, and it's higher valuation of mental reproduction could be interpreted as an attempt by Plato to illuminate the absurdity of instilling virtue through the sexual gratification of middle aged men. Though, Socrates does not address the issue of sex directly, but instead circumvents the topic with reference to reproduction. As his argument is laid out, one realizes that there is only one motivation in love, and two possible actions offered. The sole motivation is said by Diotima to be reproduction, which can manifest as either physical or mental. Given a predisposition to physically procreate, a man may choose to engage in sexual activity with a woman; if given a predisposition to mental procreation a man's only option is to engage in philosophical discussion for the purpose of generating creative ideas. The pitfalls of this argument are many, but if we assume that love does instigate the desire to procreate, in either sense, we are still left with a few loose ends. Diotima's theory of love, 1. Gives no option of mental procreation with women, and 2. Does not address issues of homoeroticism. Within the mutually exclusive categories of sex with a woman, versus philosophical discourse with a man, the issue of Paiderastia remains free of judgement and acknowledgment. It is well known that in Greece it was common of men to have long term, loving partnerships with one another, which generally included sexual relations. Diotima's claim that love's purpose is solely procreation in some form seems counterintuitive, given the impossibility of physical reproduction through homosexual intercourse. I did notice something very peculiar about Diotima's theory of love/reproduction, in contrast to the homoerotic antics of yesteryear's Greece. As has been established, homosexuality, or bisexuality was a predominant norm in Athenian culture. Additionally, men who preferred heterosexual relations were then seen to harbor more effeminate qualities, while homosexuals were seen as more masculine (2). Obviously the inverse of this mentality is seen in today's culture. This reminded me of Freud and his essays on human sexuality. In his preliminary findings Freud referred to homosexuality as inversion, and conceived of it as such(3) . This inability to be aroused by a sex different from one's own seems to imply that the ancient Greek's sexual attraction was driven by similarities, and so sameness and consensus were standards of good. I believe that this sort of same-seeking can generally be predicted to end in stagnation- in searching for an individual most similar to oneself, one is seeking to form a bond with someone whom he can only relate to, but cannot impress or be impressed upon by. But regardless of my half baked theories on why mitigated opposites attract, there is the more verifiable knowledge that genetic pairing of two similar gene sets is far less advantageous to any species than that of a larger gene pool. Therefore this attraction to similarity serves no advantage, not to mention the implicit genetic redundancy of homosexual sex. Diotima's theory of love follows roughly as such: love is a spiritual wisdom acting as an intermediate between god and man, divinity and mortality, ignorance and knowledge, and good and evil. Born of Poros and Penia (Resource and Poverty), the "spirit" of love was…
story. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man). While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples.
In some countries (e.g., the United States and Canada), essays have become a major part of formal education. Secondary students are taught structured…
The soul needs to ask the hard questions about life such as man’s role in nature, and address them. The best way to accomplish that is by doing it with people who have the same longings, in a friendly, educated, civilized, yet natural environment like the symposium of the Greeks. Plato and Socrates were looking for answers together, despite all the political and cultural turmoil that was going around them, such as an inevitable war and the decline of their Greek empire. Open discussion…
Mediation and Advocacy Websites
December 2, 2013
Mediation and Advocacy Websites
Many organizations are out there to provide important services to different populations. The volunteers and workers who help these populations have different tactics that use, two important tactics are mediation and advocacy. Both of these methods are used to help an individual or group to become empowered, to help settle differences or negotiate problems.
The first website that I chose to look…
a) >> f = inline('x^2 - 1', 'x', 'y')
f(x,y) = x^2 - 1
>> h= 0.25
For h= 0.25, the estimate of y when x= 1 is 0.1250. Also, the estimate of y when x= 2 is 0.7500.
For h= 0.1, the estimate of y when x= 1 is 0.2850. And the estimate of y when x= 2 is 1.4700.
For h= 0.01, the estimate of…
Roles and Functions of Law
University of Phoenix
Function and Role of Law In Business and Society
“Common sense often makes good law,” which is quoted by William O. Douglas. If one looks at it, the definition makes sense. They are guidelines and protocols meant to be followed created from our common sense of what is known to be right. The law is an important platform. The operation…
Acas Mediation 2010/11: Responses from participants and
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Acas Mediation 2010/11:
Good evening. My name is Billy Wilson and this is ________________________. We will be conducting your mediation today.
I would first like to thank you for choosing mediation. Mediation is great for several reasons. With mediation you can avoid the high costs, uncertainty, and stress of a trial. Trials can also take years to resolve. Mediation, on the other hand, will allow you to walk out of this room today with a solution that both of you will endorse because you decided it- not a jury, not…
"Meditations" written by Marcus Aurelius, is best summarized as being the best person you can be. In being the best person, one must be moral and unchanging in their peaceful state of mind. The author mains concept about mediation is being at an equable temper even when the going gets rough. Although people may test you they will be defeated because you have the true capability of controlling yourself. To help explain his thoughts on meditation, Aurelius uses three main key…
ARI Research Note 96-63
1996 Army Symposium: "Leadership Challenges of the 21st Century Army" Executive Summary
James G. (Jerry) Hunt and Robert L. Phillips
Texas Tech University
Army Trends Analysis Group Alma G. Steinberg, Chief
United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
U.S. ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
A Field Operating Agency…