- An indication or persistent learning over time - Our ability to store and retrieve information - The Forgetting Curve (Ebbinghaus) The Root of Remembering - For most information to be remembered it must first pass through our sensory memory (visual, auditory) - The brief recording of sensory information - Time: < 0.5 second (visual) Encoding: Automatic vs. Effortful - Automatic Processing: unconscious encoding (Space, Time, Frequency, Well Learned Info) - Effortful- the process of selective looking, listening, smelling, tasting, and feeling - attending to something attaching meaning - Cocktail party effect- what if someone yells your name across the bar? Your attention shifts - Filtering theory- CNS filters out all irrelevant information at any given moment Short Term Memory - Briefly stores and works on incoming information from our sensory memory - Encoding- brains way of getting information in, thru rehearsal - STM Capacity: 7 +- 3 bits of information - As much as can be repeated/rehearsed in 1.5 - 2 seconds - Capacity lessens during multi-tasking (Morris) - Chunking: the process of grouping information into meaningful units - Chase and Ericsson (1982)- Dario Donatelli - Decay Theory- passage of time causes forgetting, due to distractions, retrieval failure - Peterson study (count down from 167) - Interference Theory- information gets mixed up, pushed aside, by new incoming information - Recall- memory in which you must retrieve info learned earlier - Recognition- need only identify previously learned info - Rote: - repeating info over and over - five times - Elaborative: - relating new info to something we already know - more efficient, particularly long-term - Serial Position Effect- performance is better at beginning and end of lists of unrelated items - Primacy Effect- The ability to recall items listed first the best - Recency Effect- The ability to recall items listed last the best Long Term Memory - Explicit- intentionally committed to / retrieved from memory - Semantic - storage for general facts and information (George Washington, 2x2, Inventor of Light bulb) - Episodic - - storage for specific information that has personal meaning (16th birthday, first ticket, summer vacation) - Implicit- unintentionally committed to / retrieved from memory - Procedural - storage for our motor skills and habits (knowing how to: ice skate,…
Chapter 8: Memory
Encoding is the active process of converting a stimulus into a form useable by memory system.
Storage is processing and maintaining the information
Retrieval is the active process in locating and using stored information.
Sensory memory: Physical stimuli, long enough to convert to short term memory (2-3 seconds). Ex. Sound echo
Short term memory: Immediate memory for the stimuli perceived. It is long enough until necessary. Ex. Finding the theatre number…
“Memory is an active system that receives information from the senses, puts that information into a usable form, organizes it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage” (Ciccarelli, S, K & White, J. N. 2010). Memory is a very interesting subject consisting of many different types of memory of which two are short term memory and long term memory. Short term memory is when you forget something quickly in a short amount of time,…
A mnemonic device is strategy or a memory serving aid that can be used to help us remember a list of items or elements by organizing them in a form that’s easily recalled. A mnemonic device can be in the form of an acronym, where the first letter of each word is used to form an acronym or as an Acrostic, a sentence where each letter becomes the first letter of a words and the words together all form a sentence e.g. for music notes E, G, B, D, F (Every Good Boy Deserves Fun or mnemonic devices can…
Memory is a fragile process. Examine this statement with reference to psychological theory.
There are many definitions of memory but the basic function is to retain and recall information. Psychologists have realised that memory is a major component in order to get by, not only to succeed in an academic or career orientated world but generally within life. Memory surrounds us in the form of birthdays, appointments, song lyrics, exams and even finding your way home. All that said memory is not…
Memory Management Requirements
April 13, 2014
University of Phoenix
According to “Memory Management” (n.d.) “Memory management is the act of managing computer memory. In its simpler forms, this involves providing ways to allocate portions of memory to programs at their request, and freeing it for reuse when no longer needed.” Memory management is essential to computer health and safety.
In broad terms, one of the essential tasks memory management…
Types of Memory
Plasticity: the brains ability to change as result of experience
Plasticity is greatest during childhood
However, plasticity persists throughout life
It occurs by changing the pattern of connectivity between neurons
Short term memory: memory for information currently help in current consciousness
Capacity of STM
-this is also known as phonological memory
it can be assessed using span tests
Miller in 1956 suggested that span is 7 +/- 2
He denotes that…
Storage of memory is a process of retaining information in the brain, whether in sensory, short or long-term memory. These different stages of memory function are intended for our own protection – from the flood of unnecessary information. The humans have the capacity to store unlimited amounts of information indefinitely. Forgetting is inability to retrieve information that was recorded into a brain. However, the information that has been learned very well will be resistant to forgetting.
Chapter 8: Memory
* Reconstructing the Past
* _______________________: Refers to the capacity to retain and retrieve information, and also to the structures that account for this capacity
* The Manufacture of Memory
* Unlike a tape recorder or video camera, human memory is
* Highly _______________________:
* Often drawn from many sources
* Source misattribution can occur
running head: VIRTUAL MEMORY MANAGER
Assignment #4: Virtual memory manager
Dr. Romy Lu
Saturday, August 31, 2013
Most operating systems use a virtual memory manager (VMM) whose responsibility is to manage the relationship between the virtual organization of memory as seen by an application with the physical organization of memory from the operating system’s point of view. Virtual memory addresses must be mapped to physical address and vice…