- An indication or persistent learning over time - Our ability to store and retrieve information - The Forgetting Curve (Ebbinghaus) The Root of Remembering - For most information to be remembered it must first pass through our sensory memory (visual, auditory) - The brief recording of sensory information - Time: < 0.5 second (visual) Encoding: Automatic vs. Effortful - Automatic Processing: unconscious encoding (Space, Time, Frequency, Well Learned Info) - Effortful- the process of selective looking, listening, smelling, tasting, and feeling - attending to something attaching meaning - Cocktail party effect- what if someone yells your name across the bar? Your attention shifts - Filtering theory- CNS filters out all irrelevant information at any given moment Short Term Memory - Briefly stores and works on incoming information from our sensory memory - Encoding- brains way of getting information in, thru rehearsal - STM Capacity: 7 +- 3 bits of information - As much as can be repeated/rehearsed in 1.5 - 2 seconds - Capacity lessens during multi-tasking (Morris) - Chunking: the process of grouping information into meaningful units - Chase and Ericsson (1982)- Dario Donatelli - Decay Theory- passage of time causes forgetting, due to distractions, retrieval failure - Peterson study (count down from 167) - Interference Theory- information gets mixed up, pushed aside, by new incoming information - Recall- memory in which you must retrieve info learned earlier - Recognition- need only identify previously learned info - Rote: - repeating info over and over - five times - Elaborative: - relating new info to something we already know - more efficient, particularly long-term - Serial Position Effect- performance is better at beginning and end of lists of unrelated items - Primacy Effect- The ability to recall items listed first the best - Recency Effect- The ability to recall items listed last the best Long Term Memory - Explicit- intentionally committed to / retrieved from memory - Semantic - storage for general facts and information (George Washington, 2x2, Inventor of Light bulb) - Episodic - - storage for specific information that has personal meaning (16th birthday, first ticket, summer vacation) - Implicit- unintentionally committed to / retrieved from memory - Procedural - storage for our motor skills and habits (knowing how to: ice skate,
There are lots of times when we must practice, rehearse, and try to remember things such as when you have to keep practicing if you want to be able to hit the note in you solo for choir.
12) Explicit or Declarative Memories (T) memory of fact and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.”
When you are asked to list the continents and can rattle them off right away.
13) Automatic Processing (T) unconscious processing of information such as space, time, and frequency.…
Processing Information: Going Beyond Memory- you must become involved with material; learning takes place when we gather, analyze, create, act.
A. Four Essential Functions for Learning- going further then memory using gathering, analyzing, creating and acting.
1. Gathering- using our senses to put new and old information together forming new material; reading road signs.
2. Analyzing- reflecting and finding more meaning through the information; considering alternative courses.
But, unlike Earl, he tends to shift quickly and easily between the roles of "note-taker" and "note-follower".
Primarily, Memento raises questions concerning the accuracy of memory. As Leonard tells Teddy over lunch, memory is unreliable. Memory can change small details; eye-witness testimony is not trustworthy. Instead, Leonard claims, he follows facts—photographs and established details that he has written down.…
Memory Management Requirements
University of Phoenix
Introduction to Operating Systems POS/355
Memory Management Requirements
Memory management is one of the critical processes of dividing and subdividing the main memory is handled by the operating system. The operating system handles the available memory (commonly referred to as RAM) in five different levels; Physical Memory, Segmented Memory, Paged Memory, Allocated Memory, and the Heap (Pingkian, 2009).…
They collect facts, they make notes and they draw conclusions.
Facts, not memory. That's how you investigate. (Momento)
Although Leonard makes a point when stating that facts are more trust worthy then memories,
facts are even more useless when you have false information for the fact.…
Wright notes that the detectives questioned Paul for “several hours” before turning on a tape recorder to take Paul’s official statement(6). During those several hours, Paul’s testimony shifted from ambivalent to absolute – Wright notes that Paul’s official statement is now one of total acceptance. Wright does not include what Edwards and McClanahan said during those omitted hours, even though he states later on in the novel that “the investigators…
His investigation is hindered by the fact that Leonard has no short-term memory. During the attack on his wife Leonard suffered brain damage, and is unable to create short-term memories. Leonard’s long-term memory remains intact but he is unable to remember anything since the attack. To combat this condition he relies on a series of tattoos, Polaroid snap shots, and scribbled notes to seek out the killer.…
Notes, p. 9).
Stewart (4-7) waves his “rocket” around. Stewart: “Oh, no! I’m running out of gas so I can only fly for a few minutes. I’m landing with my emergency landing gear” (Obs. Notes, p. 11).
Theoretical description of the cognitive process that enabled the use of scripts
[see class notes] The killer T cell is specialized in attacking cells of the body infected by viruses and sometimes also bacteria. It can also attack cancer cells.[Nobelprize.org, (2014). ]
B cells are a type of lymphocyte. They work by secreting substances called antibodies into the bodies fluids. Antibodies attack antigens circulating in the blood stream. Antigens identify a molecule as being foreign. The cells are produced and formed in the bone marrow. [See class notes].…
Exercises such as jogging, dancing or any physical activities that raise your heart rate is beneficial to improve your memory by sending oxygen to the brain and building new cells in the brain region linked to the memory. Also taking a nap during the day will help you retain more information in your memory. Relieving stress by doing yoga or meditation is another strategy you can use to improve your memory. Socialization is another way to increase your memorization.…