Models used for Cultural Competence
Mental Health Services
Incorporating Cultural Competence
“How might developing cultural competence inprove mental health services?”
To answer this question, we must first define what is meant by the terms mental health services and culutral competence. To begin with there must be a distinct definition in the terminology used regarding a person’s psychological state. According the the International Society for Psychological and Social Approaches (ISPS), the term “mental illness” refers to a person suffering from significant changes in behaviour, thought patterns and feelings that are severe enough to effect the person’s everyday functionality and causes distress to close relatives and others around them.
However, in the question it asks for mental health aspects. ISPS recognises the term “mental health” as meaning to have a good balance in mental functioning and wellbeing without the problems associated with mental illness. These are just basic definitions and cannot clearly classify every individual with a mental problem. For example, a person can function normally in everyday situations but also suffers with severe depression at night which may not be diagnosed. Whatever term people use to discuss mental issues, they must ensure that all aspects are looked at to ensure the correct and best care is provided.
Cultural competence can be a basic yet complicated theory to achieve. There are a number of factors to take into account to enable effective systems to be placed in the mental health services. These factors can consist of behaviour, knowledgability, skills levels and the type of organisational structure used to provide the service. Recognising and implementing plans to tackle and enhance these factors can have the potential to influence governmental policies and practices in relation to the mental health services. Thus, effectively working with people from varying backgrounds and cross-cultural origins.
To achieve effective care, the service providers need to identify, respect, and tailor-make their services to meet the needs and requirements of each individual incorporating cultural inclusion.
Models used for Cultural Competence
There are a number of models regarding cultural competence, however, two models that can be used are Maslow and Papadopolus. The first one is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs which places individual needs and requirements in order of importance for self-development. The second model is one of cultural competence by Papadopoulos (1998), which identifies various areas within culuture and what requirements are needed to achieve culural competence.
In Maslow’s model, he identifies 5 levels of needs to achieve individual fulfillment. By using this model when looking at identifying cultural competence requirements, it is possible to recognise what levels each person has achieved and therefore plan the services around their needs to help them develop as an individual and within society regardless of their mental state.
This is the original Maslow hierarchy which he developed in 1940’s. However, as time progresses life changes and new concepts have to be taken into account...
In this new 8-level hierarchy, developed in 2007, the basic model still applies but new concepts have been added to reflect today’s requirements for fulfillment. The new levels added include cognitive needs, aesthetic needs and Transcendence.
This is the second model created by Papadopolus et.al. 1998. According to this model, the development of cultural competence begins with yourself and what your basic beliefs are. By understanding your own cultural awareness will help