• Abuse. Past physical, sexual, or emotional abuse can cause depression later in life. • Certain medications. For example, some drugs used to treat high blood pressure, such as beta-blockers or reserpine, can increase your risk of depression. • Conflict. Depression may result from personal conflicts or disputes with family members or friends. • Death or a loss. Sadness or grief from the death or loss of a loved one, though natural, can also increase the risk of depression. • Genetics. A family history of depression may increase the risk. It's thought that depression is passed genetically from one generation to the next. The exact way this happens, though, is not known. • Major events. Even good events such as starting a new job, graduating, or getting married can lead to depression. So can moving, losing a job or income, getting divorced, or retiring. • Other personal problems. Problems such as social isolation due to other mental illnesses or being cast out of a family or social group can lead to depression. • Serious illnesses. Sometimes depression co-exists with a major illness or is a reaction to the illness. • Substance abuse. Nearly 30% of people with substance abuse problems also have major or clinical depression. • Personality • Giving birth •
• Difficulty concentrating, remembering details, and making decisions • Fatigue and decreased energy • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, and/or helplessness • Feelings of hopelessness and/or pessimism • Insomnia, early-morning wakefulness, or excessive sleeping • Irritability, restlessness • Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable, including sex • Overeating or appetite loss • Persistent aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment • Persistent sad, anxious, or "empty" feelings • Thoughts of suicide, suicide attempts
Genetic - Schizophrenia tends to run in families, but no individual gene is responsible. It is more likely different combinations of genes might make people more vulnerable to the condition. However, having these genes does not necessarily mean you will develop schizophrenia.
Brain development - Many studies of people with schizophrenia have shown there are subtle differences in the structure of their brains or small changes in the distribution or number of brain cells
Neurotransmitters - These are chemicals that carry messages between brain cells. There is a connection between neurotransmitters and schizophrenia because drugs that alter the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain are known to relieve some of the symptoms of schizophrenia
Pregnancy and birth complications - Although the effect of pregnancy and birth complications is very small, research has shown the following conditions may make a person more likely to develop schizophrenia in later life:
Stress - The main psychological triggers of schizophrenia are stressful life events, such as a bereavement, losing your job or home, a divorce or the end of a relationship, or physical, sexual, emotional or racial abuse.
Drug Abuse - Drugs do not directly cause schizophrenia, but studies have shown drug misuse increases the risk of developing schizophrenia or a similar illness. Certain drugs, particularly cannabis, cocaine, LSD or amphetamines, may trigger some symptoms of schizophrenia, especially in people who are susceptible
Positive symptoms represent a change in behaviour or thoughts, such as hallucinations or delusions.
Negative symptoms represent a withdrawal or lack of function which you would usually expect to see in a healthy person. For example, people with schizophrenia often