For this assignment an analysis will be constructed, to portray how effective team working is.
Teams share a common sense of persistence and uniqueness and support each other to achieve the same ambition.
Team working may be defined as a work practice based on the use of teams, or groups of limited numbers of people, who have shared objectives at work and who co-operate, on a permanent or temporary basis, to achieve those objectives in a way that allows each individual to make a distinctive contribution. (CIPD, 2012)
Team working is essential in a work place especially if the business is interdependent.
“Effective teamwork is an essential element of modern management practices such as empowerment, quality circles and total quality management, and how groups manage change.” (Mullins, 2002)
It is almost essential to modern day life and it is a bond that indorses unity, reliability and support. Teamwork maximises strength and brings out the best in everyone.
In 1965 Dr Bruce Tuckman, an educational psychologist observed that the stages Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning are phases which help a team cultivate and deliver results.
This graph best describes Tuckman’s theory.
“Forming; this stage is where the team and the task are allocated.” (Mullins, 2002)
The team members work independently and politely as they do not trust each other yet. Most of this time is spent allocating task and bonding.
“Storming; this stage brings in many conflicts for teams.” (Mullins, 2002)
Team members try to establish themselves, which may lead to a hindrance in achieving the task, and sometimes lead to losing a team member. In some cases these problems might lead to teams being broken and may never recover, and team members completing the task for the sake of the team.
“Norming; this stage puts aside any differences within the team and enables the team to get organised.” (Mullins, 2002)
Here, teams begin to trust themselves and accept the value and contribution of the other team members, whilst establishing rules.
“Performing: Teams work closely together, and decision making is encouraged with respect to team members. A performing team can be identified with their high level of independence, motivation, knowledge and competence.” (Mullins, 2002)
During this stage the team is aware of what it is doing and why they are doing it. The team is less dependent on the leader, and the focus on over achieving the goal will become a criteria.
Gersick Theory. In 1988, Connie J G Gersick, noted that temporary groups did not follow stages (Tuckman’s model). “Gersick’s model differs significantly from the earlier Tuckman model, and the implications for teaching lie in when an intervention from the tutor should be made.” (Illingworth & Hartley)
She discovered that at the beginning stages when the group is formed and are being familiarised with their objective, not much work is taking place. They go through a time of inactivity.
During the middle stages, the group get together to reach their target, once again, the group reciprocates to a slow pace, until the last minute when the work is hastened to reach their objective.
Dr Meredith Belbin, reported on how well individuals might be well-matched for a specific job for the purpose of employment and assortment.
Teams can be unbalanced if the characters of its members are similar, and the team might fail to reach its objective. On the other hand, the role of the person might not be immobile, and can change according to its surroundings.
Here are five of Belbin’s theory
“The shaper is a leader, who is motivated. For one who winning is the name of the game, they will shape others into achieving their objective.”