English – Mrs Gibb
Ideas and Discoveries:
Period of the Renaissance in continental Europe a huge influence – ancient Greek & Latin philosophical and literary texts were rediscovered – Plato.
Copernicus & Galileo redefining the world’s position in the universe.
1543 – Copernicus suggests that the earth was not the centre of the universe.
1610 – Galileo concludes that Copernicus is correct
The Ptolemaic Universe (earth being in the centre) in the process of being set aside – writers still sentimentally attached to it.
Known world had doubled in size
Spanish, Portuguese and English adventures had travelled to America, Japan and the Far East by the new sea routes
1580 – Francis Drake returns from round the world voyage
Huge enterprise in map-making emerged
Beginnings of colonisation
Conversion of country from Roman Catholicism to Church of England had taken place
Country in religious turmoil
Lutheranism a key movement – addressed central question of what an individual had to do to be saved = enter into a personal relationship of trust with Christ.
Calvinism followed – salvation only there for those who choose to allow Christ’s death to have that effect. Theory of predestination.
Provoked a deep anxiety in many Christians – did they have signs of election or damnation?
Roman Catholicism virtually an underground movement.,
1603 – James 1 in power – unpopular foreign policy, and lived within a confined court circle. Asserted the absolute and divine right of the king.