1. Teamwork Benefits
a. Team- Collection of people with complementary skills who work together to accomplish shared goals while holding each other mutually accountable for performance results.
2. Teamwork Problems
a. Social Loafing- The tendency of some people to avoid responsibility by free-riding in groups.
i. *Keep groups small to prevent* ii. Make task assignments interesting to prevent
b. Extra on Social Loafing- *in a test, Americans (Individualists) social loaf more than Chinese (Collectivists). But when held accountable, Americans did better.
3. Identifiability: People are motivated when they believe that their work is identifiable and separable from the work of others.
4. Formal and Informal
a. Formal Teams- Officially recognized and supported by the organization.
i. Department ii. Work Units iii. Teams iv. Divisions
b. Informal Groups- Grow spontaneously from co-worker relationships.
i. Interest Groups ii. Friendship Groups iii. Support Groups
5. Types of Teams
a. *Cross-Functional Teams*- Has members from different functional units.
b. Self-Managing Teams- Have authority and responsibility to make decisions about how they share and complete work.
6. Stages of Team Development “Know the Order”
a. (1)Forming- team development, one of initial task orientation and interpersonal testing.
b. (2)Storming- conflict over tasks and working as a team.
c. (3)Norming- coordination of task and operating agendas.
d. (4)Performing- effective teamwork and focused task performance.
e. (5)Adjourning- completion of task, team may disband.
7. Performance “affected by norms and cohesiveness”
a. Norms- Expected behaviors
b. Cohesiveness- How committed the team members are
a. Distributed Leadership- All members are responsible for recognizing when task or maintenance activities are necessary.
b. Distributive Behaviors Cause Problems
i. Excessive Joking ii. Aggressiveness iii. Non-participation
9. Team Decisions
a. Decision Making- The process of making choices among alternative courses of action.
b. *Consensus*- After thorough discussion most team members favor one decision and other members agree to support the decision.
c. Group Think- Tendency of members of highly cohesive teams to lose their critical evaluative capabilities and make poor decisions.
a. Conflict- Disagreement over issues of a substance and/or an emotional antagonism.
b. *Substantive Conflict*- Disagreements over goals, resources, rewards, policies, procedures, and job assignments.
c. Emotional Conflict- Results from feelings of anger, distrust, dislike, fear, and resentment as well as from personality clashes.
11. Conflict Continued
a. Conflict Resolution- Removing the substantive or emotional reasons for a conflict.
b. Collaboration- Involves working through conflict differences and solving problems so everyone wins.
Chapter 16: “Diversity and Global Cultures”
1. Business and Diversity
a. Diversity- race, gender, age and many other individual differences.
b. Inclusivity- Degree to which an organization is open to anyone who can perform a job regardless of race, gender, age or any other individual difference.
c. Multi-Cultural Organization- Based on pluralism and operates with inclusivity and respect for diversity.
2. Organizational Subcultures- Groups that share interests or characteristics.
i. Occupations ii. Ethnicity iii. Religion iv. Gender
3. Glass Ceiling- Career advancement barrier to women and minorities.
a. Biculturalism- Minority members adopt characteristics of majority cultures in order to succeed.
4. Managing Diversity
a. Affirmative Action- Management and commitment to hiring and advancing women and minorities.
b. Valuing Differences- Education and training to understand and respect differences.
c. Managing Diversity- Building an inclusive network that allows everyone to reach his or her potential.
5. Culture Shock-