8 December 2014
1. What is the difference between downward communication and upward communication? What is the primary purpose of each? Is lateral communication any different?
Downward communication- the transmission of information from manager to subordinate.
Purpose-is to convey orders and information managers use to let their people know what it is that needs to be done and how well they are doing.
Upward communication- the transfer of information from subordinate to superior.
Purpose- is to provide feedback, ask questions, or obtain assistance from higher-level management.
Lateral communication- means communication between and amongst all given entities at a particular level of …show more content…
Discuss the decision-making philosophies and practices of French and Danish managers.
French Managers- tend to spend ample time on searching for and evaluating alternatives, exhibiting rationality and intelligence in each option. The French approach each opportunity with a sense of creativity and logic and they tend to become quite emotional charged rather quickly if challenged.
Danish Managers- tend to emphasize different stages in the decision making process. They do not spend much time searching or analyzing alternatives to optimize production but instead choose the option that can be started and implemented quickly and still bring about the relative desired results. They are less emotionally responsive and tend to take a straight forward approach. Danes do not emphasize control in operations.
11. Explain the relevance of TQM in MNC’s.
Use TQM techniques to tailor their own output to customer needs, and they require the same approach from their own suppliers.
Takes a customer driven approach.
TQM uses employee