Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
A method of job analysis that takes into account the human, task, and technological factors of jobs and job classes.
Position analysis questionnaire or "PAQ" is a method of Job analysis questionnaire that evaluates job skill level and basic characteristics of applicants for a set match of employment opportunity. The position analysis questionnaire has been developed at Purdue University by McCormick, E.J., & Jeanneret, and Mechame in 1972.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Herzberg developed a content theory known as the two-factor theory of motivation. The two factors are called hygiene factors (dissatisfies) and motivators (satisfiers). Herzberg suggests that both hygiene factors and motivators, need to be present in order for employees to feel motivated.
Hygiene factors are extrinsic conditions from the job context and include salary, job security, working conditions, status, company procedures, quality of technical supervision, and quality of interpersonal relations among peers, superiors, and subordinates.
Motivators are intrinsic conditions from job content that make the job meaningful and satisfying. Motivators include achievement, recognition responsibility, advancement, the work itself, and the possibility for growth.
Several important managerial implications of Herzberg’s two-factor theory include: No job dissatisfaction, high job satisfaction. No job dissatisfaction, no job satisfaction. High job dissatisfaction, no job satisfaction.
Herzberg suggests that motivators (intrinsic conditions) and hygiene factors can be applied to understanding factory (extrinsic conditions) workers in most countries and cultures.
The impetus for designing job depth was provided by Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation. The basis of his theory is that factors that meet individuals’ need for psychological growth (especially responsibility, job challenge, and achievement) must be characteristic of their jobs. The application of his theory is termed job enrichment.
Job enrichment: Increases motivation by building challenge, responsibility, recognition, and growth opportunities into a person’s job.
The implementation of job enrichment is realized through direct changes in job depth.
Sociotechnical theory combines technological and social issues in job design practice.
Sociotechnical theory is compatible with job design strategy and emphasizes the practical necessity to design jobs that provide autonomy, feedback, significance, identity, and variety.
Total quality management (TQM) combines the ideas of job enrichment and sociotechnical theory. Two popular TQM techniques are benchmarking and Six Sigma. Managers who implement TQM design jobs that empower individuals to make important decisions about product/service quality. The empowerment process encourages participative management, team-oriented task modules, and autonomy.
Sociotechnical theory focuses on interactions between technical demands of jobs and social demands of people doing the jobs. The theory emphasizes that too great an emphasis on the technical system in the manner of scientific management or too great an emphasis on the social system in the manner of human relations will lead to poor job design.
Sociotechnical theory and application of job design developed from studies undertaken in English coal mines from 1948 to 1958. 80 The studies became widely publicized for demonstrating the interrelationship between the social system and the technical system of organizations.
There’s no contradiction between sociotechnical theory and total quality management.
Requisite Task Attribute Index
The pioneering effort to measure perceived job content through employee responses to a questionnaire resulted in the identification of six characteristics: variety, autonomy, required interaction, optional interaction, knowledge and skill required, and responsibility.
The index of these six characteristics is