mhr final exam notes Essay

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CHAPTER 10 Notes
Power is the capacity of a person, team, or organization to influence others.
Potential, not actual use
People have power they don’t use -- may not know they possess
A perception, not necessarily reality
Sources of power:
Legitimate: basically an agreement that you are in position/role to request certain behaviours of others.
Based on the job description and mutual agreement. Its power range is different across nations and organizations cultures. Norm of reciprocity or Norm of give &take. In this power, you feel more like an obligation to help those who helped you in the past. You have high control over the info.
Reward: You have an ability to control over the distribution of the rewards valued by others and remove negative penalty.
Coercive: you posses an ability to apply the punishment. Peer pressure is a form of coercive power.Reward and coercive power exists upward and downward in hierarchies.
Expert: when you have a capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge or skills they value. Its when you cope up with uncertainty. The organization works better when you can predict environment.
People gain power when they use their expertise to prevent, forecast and absorb.
Referent: its to do with the charismatic leadership. It happens when others like, identify or respect the person. Contingencies of power: (or possibility of power )
Substitutability: when there are few/no alternative to the resource. Thru increasing nonsubstituability one can control the resource. Its when a person have this exclusive right. For example; a special right to control medical procedures, or when you have control over skilled labour or exclusive knowledge about repairing a equipment. Its when you have differentiate resource from others.
Centrality: its more of a degree and nature of interdependence in between the power holder and others.
Its a function of how many others are affected by you, or how quickly others are affected by you.
Discretion: when one have a freedom to exercise judgement. Basically means carefulness. Rules limit discretion, which in result limits power. Its more like perception when one acts as if they have a discretion. Visibility: when others are aware of your presence. More face time, having office at the busy routes. Or symbols that communicate your power source, like having educational diplomas, clothing, etc like stethoscope around neck.
Power and Influence through social network:
Thru social network, one can connect to others thru form of interdependence. Its when you generate power thru social capital. Goodwill and resulting resources shared in among members in a social network. 3 powers thru social network includes; knowledge sharing, visibility, and referent power.
There are 3 ties of social network; strong, weak, and many ties.

Strong ties:
Close-knit relationships (frequent, plenty of sharing, multiple roles)
Offer resources more quickly/plentifully,but less unique
Weak ties
Acquaintances (familiarity)
Offer unique resources not held by us or people in other networks
Many ties
Resources increase with number of ties
Limits on number of weak/strong ties one can create
Person’s importance in a network
Three factors in centrality:
Betweenness – extent you are located between others in the network (i.e. information gatekeeper)
Degree centrality -- Number of people connected to you
Closeness – stronger relationships (faster/plentiful resources)
Example: “A” has highest network centrality due to all three factors; “B” has lowest centrality
Influencing others -- any behaviour that attempts to alter someone’s attitudes or behaviour. Applies one or more power bases. Its Process through which people achieve organizational objectives. It Operates up, down, and across the organizational hierarchy.
Types of Influence:
Silent authority: Following requests without overt influence. Based on legitimate power, role modelling. Its common in high power distance cultures
Assertiveness: Actively applying legitimate