Reproductive Endocrinology is a sub-specialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology. This requires 4 years of medical school followed by completion of a 4 year residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Training includes:
Medical and surgical treatment of disorders of the female reproductive tract
Care of pregnant women
After completing a residency program, a physician would apply through a highly competitive system to receive additional training in Reproductive Endocrinology. This is referred to as a fellowship and includes a 3 year intensive training program, which focuses on understanding the complexities of the human female reproductive system.
Reproductive Endocrinologists receive board certification by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology in both Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility. These require both written and oral examinations.
A person who wants to become an andrologist usually needs to complete medical school, participate in at least four years of residency training, and pass local or national licensing exams. Many hospitals and specialty clinics offer a two-year fellowship program in andrology for professionals who successfully complete residency training. A fellowship is not required to become an andrologist in all countries, but a doctor can benefit greatly from the extra guidance and experience provided in this sort of specialty program.After completing residency and fellowship training, candidates must usually take a written exam to earn board certification and the right to begin practicing independently.
The practice and study of andrology is often considered a specialty area of urology. Many urologists offer consulting and limited treatment for male patients who have reproductive problems, though recurring issues and more complex problems are often best handled by a specially trained andrologist. A urologist with an andrology background will often have more experience with nuanced reproductive problems and be more up-to-date on possible cures.
Embryologists study of the early growth of living organisms. These workers study the stages of animal and plant pregnancies in order to observe the development of unborn progeny. A bachelor's, master's or doctoral degree is needed to enter this field, depending on desired career position.
No for all except AIDS resistancy, and schizophrenia
The term cloning describes a number of different processes that can be used to produce genetically identical copies of a biological entity. The copied material, which has the same genetic makeup as the original, is referred to as a clone.
World famous German scientist Hans Spemann publishes Embryonic Development and Induction. The book contains the results of experiments he conducted on salamanders where he transferred the genetic material of a sixteen cell embryo into a single salamander cell with no nucleus. He also