**Most were recently arrived Foreigners, Maintained their customs, allegiances, and cultural traits (esp. Language) * **Benefits to Hispanic Immigrants * Source of employment * Economic development * Political empowerment * Cultural and linguistic maintenance * Policies adopted by key institutions during the 1960's and 1970's:
1) The institution of bilingual education in the Dade County public Schools (1963)
2)The declaration of Metropolitan Dade County as officially bilingual and bicultural (1973)
3) The Creation of "El Herald" (1976)
**Why did these institutions adopt the path of enlightened assimilationism?
Hispanic owned businesses:
1969- 3,447 in 13 years grew to over 25,000
Retail, banking, real estate, insurance, export-import firms, etc.
**Reasons for rejection of the 1973 declaration?
reversed the institutionalization of Spanish and potentially other languages in county government.
Eliminated translations of public documents and bilingual services.
Such as public schools
Provided a method for the success for other states in the English-Only movement. repeated by CA and virtually every other state that put this issue up for vote
-Oil prices drop by 10% (Center of Economy)
-Out-Migration of unemployed & Over-Construction (years prior)
Vacant Residential units rose from 86k to 220k in 4 years
-The large influx of immigrants in Houston during the 1980s presented two anomalies: 1)The labor immigration during an Economic Decline
Social strategies for economic survival
Major source of low-wage labor (Service) 2) The settlement in a mainly white, middle-income area. surviving outside of ethnic enclaves
Household survival strategies
Central American immigrants became major source of low-wage