Review Questions – Part 3
1. What is the difference between active and passive immunity? Active:
An individual’s own immune system makes antibodies (stimulation of the immune system)
It takes several weeks
It is long lasting
Ready-made antibodies are introduced into the body (no stimulation of immune system)
It is immediate
It is temporary
2. What are examples of each, including naturally and artificially acquired. naturally acquired active immunity – artificially acquired active immunity – naturally acquired passive immunity – artificially acquired passive immunity
3. What is in a vaccine that enables you to develop immunity?
4. Define antigens-: a substance the body identifies as foreign and to which it mounts an immune response, antibodies- Immunoglobulin: a protein produced in response to an antigen that is capable of binding specifically to the antigen, and the anamnestic response.
5. List and describe the properties of the immune system.
Self versus Nonself
Antibody Mediated or Humoral immunity: carried out by antibodies circulating in the blood
Defender outside cells
Cell Mediated Immunity or Cellular: carried out by T cells and occurs at the cellular level
Most effective in clearing the body of virus-infected, abnormal cells
7. How are B & T lymphocytes similar? B cell binds to antigen which binds to T helper cell. How are they different? Where do they develop? B cells in Red Bone Marrow. T Cells develop in red bone marrow but they migrate to the thymus.
8. What are the 2 branches of the immune system? Specific and Non-Specific How are they similar? How are they different? Describe the cells and the events involved with each of the branches. Which cells might be involved in both?
9. Describe antibodies. What are the major characteristics of each of the 5 classes? Which class can cross the placenta? Which binds to mast cells and causes inflammation? Histamines How do antibodies destroy antigens? What do antibodies have to do with Complement
10. Define or explain: hapten- a small molecule can act as an antigen if it binds to a larger protein molecule (a carrier molecule), cytokine, lymphokine, cross-reactive, diversity or heterogeneity- The ability of the immune system to respond specifically to a variety of antigens., antigenic determinant site, CD4 receptors. Review opsonins and opsonization.
11. Define cytokines- Involves the differentiation and actions of different types of T cells and production of chemical mediators, lymphokines -cytokines . What role do they play in immunity?
12. Define MHC antigens :There are two classes: MHC-I, MHC-II, MHC proteins allow cells to recognize each other and describe their role in immunity.
13. Describe the 4 types of hypersensitivities with examples.
Immediate hypersensitivity (Type I)
Cytotoxic hypersensitive (Type II)
Immune complex hypersensitivity (Type III)
Cell-mediated or delayed hypersensitivity (Type IV)
How are they similar to one another?…