Module 01 Homework Assignment
Use the information presented in the module folder along with your readings from the textbook to answer the following questions.
Please try to write at least 2-3 COMPLETE sentences for your responses
1. Define and briefly describe the different classes of microorganisms (including the terms Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes):
1. Eukaryotes: Any cell or organism that possesses a clearly defined nucleus. It has a membrane that surrounds the nucleus, in which the well-defined chromosomes are located. It contains organelles, an endoplasmic reticulum, and lysomes
a. Algae - Photosynthetic organisms that occur in most habitats. They vary from small, single-celled forms to complex multicellular forms.
b. Fungi - any of a diverse group of eukaryotic single-celled or multinucleate organismsthat live by decomposing and absorbing the organic material in which they grow.
c. Protozoans – single-celled eukaryotes that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy.
2. Prokaryotes: Any organism that lacks a distinct nucleus and other organelles due to the absence of internal membranes. Most common prokaryotes is bacteria.
a. Bacteria – Single celled microbes that are shaped as balls, rods, or spheres. Most bacteria is helpful and lives in and on your body naturally. Infectious bacteria reproduces quickly and release toxins that make a person sick. Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections.
b. Archae - A domain of single-celled microorganisms. They have no cell nucleus or any other organelles inside their cells. Similar to bacteria in size and shape, mostly resemble gram positive bacteria.
3. Viruses – Small infectious agent that depend on a host to reproduce. Consists of a core DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein, lipid or glycoprotein coat, or some combination of the three.
4. Prions - A small proteinaceous infectious disease-causing agent that is believed to be the smallest infectious particle. A prion is neither bacterial nor fungal nor viral and contains no genetic material.
2. What is applied microbiology? Describe 2 (two) ways in which applied microbiology is used to improve aspects of life (such as food production, pharmaceutical, disease prevention, etc) and the environment. Applied microbiology is the application of understanding the benefits of microbiology and microbes. Medical microbiology is the study of pathogenic microbes and their role in human illness. Pharmaceitical microbiology studies how microbes can be produced to make antibiotics and vaccines.
3. Briefly describe the pH scale and what acids and bases are. Discuss the importance of pH on living cells and tissues: The pH scale measures how acidic or basic a substance is. It ranges from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral. A pH less than 7 is acidic, and a pH greater than 7 is basic. Each whole pH value below 7 is ten times more acidic than the next higher value. PH controls the speed of our body's biochemical reactions. The proper pH is needed to maintain homeostasis. If the pH level is off it can cause a person to get sick, have low energy, gain weight, or develop cardiovascular disease.
4. Define the four main types of organic molecules. Be sure to describe their function and gives examples of each:
a. Carbohydrates – Simple sugars, short term energy source. Example: Glucose
b. Proteins – Digestive enzyme, structure of hair and skin. Example: keratin, enzymes, collagen
c. Lipids – Components of membranes, long term energy source. Example: fats and oils