MIcro-organism HIV and TB Essay

Submitted By hoanim59
Words: 1065
Pages: 5

Virus: HIV
Life cycle and Life processes:
HIV can infect a lot of different cells in your body and these include brain cells but its main target is CD4 lymphocyte also known as the T-Cell or CD4 cell. When the CD4 cell is infected with HIV the virus goes through multiple stages to reproduce itself and create more virus particles. The first process is the binding and fusion. This processes is where the HIV binds to a CD4 cell receptor and a co-receptor on the surface of the cell. Once the HIV has fused with the cell it can begin to release it genetic material into the cell. The second step is known as reverse transcription. A special enzyme called reverse transcriptase changes the genetic material of the virus so it can be become part/integrated into the host DNA. Next is integration. The virus’ new genetic material enters the nucleus of the CD4 cell an uses another enzyme called integrase to integrate itself into the hosts very own genetic material. Whilst here it may hide and can stay inactive of years. The way that it reproduces is through transcription. When the host cell becomes activated, and the virus uses your own enzymes to create more of its genetic material along with a more specialized genetic material which allows it make longer proteins. After that comes assembly. A special enzyme called protease cuts the longer HIV proteins into individual proteins. When these come together with the virus’ genetic material, a new virus has been assembled. Budding, this is the final stage of the virus’ life cycle. In this stage, the virus pushes itself out of the host cell, taking with it part of the membrane of the cell. This outer part covers the virus and contains all of the structures necessary to bind to a new CD4 cell and receptors and begin the process again.

How and Why it makes humans sick:
HIV is able to hide it self inside the hosts cell and not show any symptoms which is why it is good to get tested for it regularyly. HIV attacks and kills crucial immune system cells, known as T-helper cells. Without T-helper cells (which kill cells that have been infected with germs) many other immune system cells cannot not work properly, including B-cells that make antibodies. A person infected with HIV may not show any symptoms for years. But untreated, the number of T-helper cells steadily drops. Eventually, the numbers fall so low that the risk of infection greatly increases, and the symptoms of AIDS appear. AIDS is caused by HIV which attacks the immune system, disarming the body's defences against infections and certain cancers. Germs that cause minor illnesses in healthy people can make people with AIDS very ill.
-why and how people combat the virus:
Over a million people living in the US are infected with the HIV virus. 1 in 5 people infected with HIV dont know they have it. Every 9.5 minutes someone in the US is infected witht eh virus. These numbers are alarming and scientists are struggling to find a cure to the disease. This is because the surface of the virus is constantly changing. The only way to avoid infection is to avoid contracting the virus. The main way the virus is contracted is through unprotected sex, so practising safe sex is a good way to help prevent the disease.
Some well known people living or had HIV: Earvin “Magic” Johnson Eazy-E Freddy Mercury
NBA star member of N.W.A singer in band Queen

Bacteria: Tuberculosis
Life Cycle and Life Processes:
There are five stages in the life cycle of tuberculosis. The first is onset the bacteria is inhaled through the air. When this happens disease progression depends on the inhaled strain and the microphage. Tuberculosis begins when the inhaled mycobacterial nuclei reach alveolar macrophages. The next stage is symbiosis. If the initial macrophage does not succeed in killing the