Midterm 2 Study Guide Essay

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Political Science 103-International Relations
Professor Jon Pevehouse
Midterm #1 Study Guide

Ch. 5 Internal Conflict (p. 153-160)

1) Hegemonic War: war for control of the entire world order—the rules of the international system as a whole (worldwar, global war, general war, or systemic war)

2) Total War: warfare by one state waged to conquer and occupy another; modern total war originated in the Napoleonic Wars, which relied on conscription on a mass scale

3) Limited War: military actions that seek objectives short of the surrender and occupation of the enemy

4) Civil War: a war between factions within a state trying to create/prevent a new government for the entire state or some territorial part of it

5) Guerrilla War: warfare without front lines and with irregular forces operating in the midst of, and often hidden or protected by civilian populations

6) Truth Commissions: governmental bodies established in several countries after internal wars to hear honest testimony and bring to light what really happened during these wars, and in exchange to offer most of the participants asylum from punishment

7) Conflict: a difference in preferred outcomes in a bargaining situation

8) Cycle Theories: an effort to explain the tendencies toward war in the international system as cyclical; for example, by linking wars with long waves in the world economy (Kondratieff cycles)

Ch. 6 Military Force and Terrorism (p. 193-204)

1) Infantry: foot soldiers who use assault rifles and other light weapons

2) Counterinsurgency: effort to combat guerrilla armies, often including programs to “win the hearts and minds” of rural populations so that they stop sheltering guerrillas

3) Land Mines: concealed explosive devices, often left behind by irregular armies, that kill or maim civilians after wars end (more than 100 million in Angola, Bosnia, Afghanistan, and Cambodia—there’s a motion to ban them)

4) Power Projection: the ability to use military force in areas far from a country’s region or sphere of influence

5) Electronic Warfare: use of electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, radar) in war, such as employing electromagnetic signals for one’s own benefit while denying their use to an enemy

6) Stealth Technology: use of special radar-absorbent materials and unusual shapes in the design of aircraft, missiles, and ships to scatter enemy radar

Ch. 5 Internal Conflict (p. 177-188)

1) Irredentism: form of nationalism whose goal is to regain territory lost to another state; can lead directly to violent interstate conflicts

2) Ethnic Cleansing: euphemism for forced displacement of an ethnic group or groups from a territory, accompanied by massacres and other human rights violations; it has occurred after the breakup of multinational states, notably in former Yugoslavia

3) Territorial Waters: waters near states’ shores generally treated as part of national territory—UN Convention on Law of the Sea=12-mile territorial sea and 200-mile exclusive economic zone (free navigation but exclusive fishing and mineral rights)

4) Airspace: space above a state that is considered its territory, in contrast to outer space, which is considered international territory

Ch. 5 Internal Conflict (p. 160-177)

1) Nationalism: Identification with and devotion to the interests of one’s nation (usually involves a large group of people who share a national ID and often a language, culture, ancestry)

2) Ethnic Groups: large groups of people who share ancestral, language, or religious ties and a common ID

3) Ethnocentrism: tendency to see one’s own group (in-group) in favorable terms and an out-group in unfavorable terms

4) Dehumanization: stigmatization of enemies as subhuman or nonhuman, leading frequently to widespread massacres or worse

5) Genocide: international and systemic attempt to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group in whole or part (confirmed as a crime under international law by the UN Genocide Convention)

6) Secular (state): a…