A group of English Protestants, known as Puritans, that settled in America around 1630. They wanted to create utopia, “city on hill,” as they were not happy with the Church of England. Puritans strongly believed in predestination, that God chose those people for salvation or condemnation. They believe that religion defined who they are. They also had a Book of life which had two parts: Left side, which was the good side containing people’s name that goes to heaven, and right side which was the bad side containing the names of people that goes to hell. They were always looking for “signs.” Although their main export was lumber, most people gain a living from farming as well as fishing. Women also contributed to their economic survival. They produced cloths and made clothes for their family. Women in this time had fewer rights than men, particularly in the church. Anne Hutchinson, a daughter of clergyman with puritan faith, grew up reading the bible and interpreting the passages. She held study session and taught men and women (about 80). Because women had less rights around this time and “they should not tech (men)” She also miscarried her baby was a “sign” for Puritans that she was a bad person. She was trialed and ordered to banish and killed. Hutchinson left an impression about religious freedom. The second generation of puritans experienced success in business but failure in faith due to belief of Witch Craft. There were many persecutions of people due to witchcraft accusation. In the end, the old style puritanism was gone but the gendering still existed.
Around 1720-1730 the Great Awakening, a religious revival called “new-birth” happened. Colonists moved to Middle colonies (Delaware, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania), which was originally called New Netherlands, looking for religious freedom. They had a longer growing season, as their climate was relatively hot. They were considered the “Bread Basket” because they were the major export for grains, such as wheat. Middle colonies turned out to be the most diverse and most ethnically colonies of the original 13 colonies. Jonathan Edwards was a pastor that preached in a very particular way. He preached in front of a wall as if he was speaking to someone. George Whitefield is another person that played a role in middle colonies. He spreads awakening all over the country. He preached 3 sermons a day up to 20,000 people, where Benjamin Franklin attended once. Middle colonies also experienced a shift towards scientific thinking called American Enlightenment.
There are several reasons that led to the American Revolution. Colonists in the end of revolution were in great rage. They have been isolated from their mother country. After Great Britain won the seven years of war, they were in a huge debt. In order to cover this debt, they impose taxes on the colonies, and as a result the colonists grew angry. Different people began to preach about the government. For example, in Common sense, Thomas Paine stated, “that the king is not to be trusted without being looked after, or in other words, that a thirst for absolute power is the natural disease of monarchy.” They began to question the government. The colonist believed that their natural rights were violated as well the principle of “no taxation without representation.” During Sugar Act