Midterm Study Guide – 35 Points – Optional AoL
This would be for the THURSDAY part of the test and would be great prep for both the MC questions – which will be more general than normal unit MC questions – and the C&C essay.
35 MC Questions – two points each
1 C&C Essay – you will have two choices
Units 1 & 2: Neolithic Revolution through the Classical Era; to 600 CE
1. Neolithic revolution; significance of hunter-gatherer lifestyle and the switch to sedentary agriculture; how did the switch take place over time? How did it change society? How did it change gender relationships? The Neolithic Revolution was the general changeover from the basic hunting and gathering to the growing of crops and the domestication of wild animals. However, like many marker events, it happened in several different places at several different times. The Neolithic Revolution is most likely the start of the status differences between males and females, probably because of the females' loss of wealth and power. Class distinctions were caused because crops from the harvest could be stocked up. Also, land could be amassed and passed from one generation to the next through a family making one more venerable than another. The evolution of agriculture and the training of animals allowed people to stay in one place instead of moving with the herd of animals, as they were used to doing. People had to be able to grow plants in the spot that they were going to live in and to train animals to live in space with them. Man was able to learn how to plant seeds and to discipline wild beasts, and they had somewhere that they were able to settle without needing to travel with the flock. As farmers began to cultivate the land more and more, there was an increase in crops and they were stored for later consumption. This helped ensure that they ate on a regular basis instead of whenever they were able to catch their prey. Health and longevity improved and the number of people grew. The demand to house all of them led to growing settlements and the need for a set of rules to govern them.
What are the characteristics of a civilization? Be able to identify civilizations or “dismiss” a society without these characteristics. The characteristics of a typical civilization are those that distinguish between a large town and a civilization. They identify a large group of families, their homes and land, and the way they interact with one another. For these to be called a civilization, they need to be able to meet certain traits. One is the generation of reliable surplus. For a town to be able to thrive, there needs to be a plentiful supply of food and water and shelter for the people to use to survive. It was especially important for people during early times to have access to basic necessities during times of hardship. Another characteristic is the diversity of the people. For governments to be able to succeed, there needs to be the production of new ideas. For farmers, there needs to be a wondering as to what can be planted and what will flourish in the area. For merchants, there needs to be varying products and prices, services and charges. When there is enough diversity in a community, it is able to grow and improve. The third aspect of a civilization is the clear social class distinctions. In any culture there is rich and poor, middle- class and upper- class. Owning land and having a surplus of resources and wealth was basically the equivalent of being rich in 3500 B.C.E. But what happens if a city doesn't have social classes? Without classes, there is usually no competition. Without competition, there isn't an incentive to work and nothing gets done and the community fails. All successful civilizations have had social classes and will continue to. The growth of cities is a large aspect of a populace simply because if there isn't enough people the land won't ever be developed enough to build bigger