What was the main focus of Erasmus' publication, The Praise of Folly?
Wanted to reform the church by spreading an understanding of the philosophy of Jesus by providing an enlightened education in the early sources of Christianity, and making common sense criticism of abuses in the church.
Used humorous yet effective criticism to point out corrupt practices of his own society.
How did the issue of good works cause Luther's religious crisis come to a head?
Catholic doctrine emphasized both faith and good works
Luther saw human beings as weak and powerless to God and could never do enough good works to merit salvation
Through his study of the Bible, Luther found that humans are saved through faith in the promises of God made possible by the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross.
The doctrine of salvation or justification by grace through faith alone became the primary doctrine of the Protestant Reformation.
In which statement did Luther indict the church's abuse of the sale of indulgences?
The Ninety Five Theses
What were the only source of truth and the only reliable path of faith, other than justification, for Luther?
What event precipitated Luther's break with the church?
The indulgence Controversy
What was the main focus of the Edict of Worms?
He made Luther an outlaw within the entire empire
Luther’s works were to be burned
Luther was to be captured and brought to the Emperor What was the main method for the spread of Luther's ideas?
The preaching of evangelical sermons, based on a return to the original message of the Bible.
What was Luther's view of the sacraments of the Catholic Church?
Kept only two out of the Catholics seven
Baptism and The Lords Supper
No longer merit-earning works but signs that signified the Promise of salvation
Where/what groups did the Reformation originate in Germany?
2/3 of southern Germany
Largely urban areas
Princely and ecclesiastical states in Northern and central Germany
Who protected Luther despite being condemned as a criminal at the Diet of Worms?
Elector of Saxony
Who was Charles V's chief concern during his reign?
His rivalry with the Valois King of France, Francis I
From which state did Charles V face a threat in the eastern part of his empire?
The Ottaman Turks overran most of Hungary, moved into Austria, and advanced as far as Vienna
What development brought about an end to the religious warfare plaguing Germany in the mid-sixteenth century?
Peace of Augsburg How did Zwingli's interpretation of the Lord's Supper differ from that of Luther?
The Lords Supper was symbolic
There was a real presence of the blood and body “in, with, and under the bread and wine.”
Who was the Swiss religious reformer who established the Protestant Reformation in Zurich?
What were the beliefs of the Anabaptists?
Tried to return literally to the beliefs/practices of early Christianity
Believed in “suffering for their faith”
Complete separation of church and state
Led to Amish
Who succeeded Henry VIII after his death?
The sickly Edward the VI
His son by third wife Jane Seymour
Which group did Mary I Tudor persecute, earning her the nickname "bloody Mary"?
Which of the following were among the chief characteristics of John Calvin's reform movement?
Doctrine of justification by faith alone to achieve salvation
How did the Reformation impact the conception of women's roles?
Obedience to husband
Did not transform women’s subordinate place in society
Which religious order was founded by Ignatius Loyola?
The society of Jesus
Who was the Jesuit missionary who propagated Christianity in India, Malacca and the Moluccas, and Japan, and who died just before reaching China?
What did the Council of Trent achieve?
Possessed a clear body of doctrine for catholic