MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE MKB Essay example

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CHAPTER 13—REFORMATION AND RELIGIOUS WARFARE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY

What was the main focus of Erasmus' publication, The Praise of Folly?
Wanted to reform the church by spreading an understanding of the philosophy of Jesus by providing an enlightened education in the early sources of Christianity, and making common sense criticism of abuses in the church.
Used humorous yet effective criticism to point out corrupt practices of his own society.

How did the issue of good works cause Luther's religious crisis come to a head?
Catholic doctrine emphasized both faith and good works
Luther saw human beings as weak and powerless to God and could never do enough good works to merit salvation
Through his study of the Bible, Luther found that humans are saved through faith in the promises of God made possible by the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross.
The doctrine of salvation or justification by grace through faith alone became the primary doctrine of the Protestant Reformation.

In which statement did Luther indict the church's abuse of the sale of indulgences?
The Ninety Five Theses

What were the only source of truth and the only reliable path of faith, other than justification, for Luther?
The Bible

What event precipitated Luther's break with the church?
The indulgence Controversy

What was the main focus of the Edict of Worms?
He made Luther an outlaw within the entire empire
Luther’s works were to be burned
Luther was to be captured and brought to the Emperor What was the main method for the spread of Luther's ideas?
The sermon
The preaching of evangelical sermons, based on a return to the original message of the Bible.

What was Luther's view of the sacraments of the Catholic Church?
Kept only two out of the Catholics seven
Baptism and The Lords Supper
No longer merit-earning works but signs that signified the Promise of salvation

Where/what groups did the Reformation originate in Germany?
2/3 of southern Germany
Largely urban areas
Princely and ecclesiastical states in Northern and central Germany

Who protected Luther despite being condemned as a criminal at the Diet of Worms?
Elector of Saxony

Who was Charles V's chief concern during his reign?
His rivalry with the Valois King of France, Francis I

From which state did Charles V face a threat in the eastern part of his empire?
The Ottaman Turks overran most of Hungary, moved into Austria, and advanced as far as Vienna

What development brought about an end to the religious warfare plaguing Germany in the mid-sixteenth century?
Peace of Augsburg How did Zwingli's interpretation of the Lord's Supper differ from that of Luther?
Zwingli
The Lords Supper was symbolic
Luther
There was a real presence of the blood and body “in, with, and under the bread and wine.”

Who was the Swiss religious reformer who established the Protestant Reformation in Zurich?
Zwingli

What were the beliefs of the Anabaptists?
Tried to return literally to the beliefs/practices of early Christianity
Believed in “suffering for their faith”
Complete separation of church and state
Considered radicals
Led to Amish

Who succeeded Henry VIII after his death?
The sickly Edward the VI
His son by third wife Jane Seymour

Which group did Mary I Tudor persecute, earning her the nickname "bloody Mary"?
The Protestants

Which of the following were among the chief characteristics of John Calvin's reform movement?
Doctrine of justification by faith alone to achieve salvation
Predestination

How did the Reformation impact the conception of women's roles?
Obedience to husband
Bear children
Did not transform women’s subordinate place in society

Which religious order was founded by Ignatius Loyola?
The society of Jesus

Who was the Jesuit missionary who propagated Christianity in India, Malacca and the Moluccas, and Japan, and who died just before reaching China?
Francis Xavier

What did the Council of Trent achieve?
Possessed a clear body of doctrine for catholic…