milgram experiment Essay

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Challenge and change unit one test review

Alfred Adler- believed that difficulties people encounter in gaining self-esteem and recognition, if not overcome by the normal means, lead to compensatory behavior and result in a personality disorder which is widely referred to as an inferiority complex

Alfred bandura 1925
Concluded that learning is largely a modeling experience
When humans observe behavior- either acceptable or un acceptable they are more likely to practice it
He evaluated this through an experiment where children were shown a video with people interacting with a balloon like doll named bobo. The children were then given that doll. The way they treated it was the same as they saw in the video

Anthropological research methods

1. Participant observation
Anthropologists have learned that the best way to really get to know another society and its culture is to live in it as an active participant rather than simply and observer
By physically and emotionally participating in the social interaction of the host is in possible to become as a member and they will act more naturally rather than putting on an act
Dian Fossey believed that in order to study gorillas effectively she has immerse herself with them in an effort to get them to accept her presence
2. Collection of statistics
3. Field interviews
4. Rigorous compilation of detailed notes
5. Ethnography
The scientific study. Description of human races and cultures

Anthropology is the broad study of human kind around the world and throughout time
It is concerned with both biological and cultural aspects

Archaeology- (subdivision of anthro) prehistory + early history of cultures around the world. Major trends in cultural evolution + techniques for finding, evacuating, dating + analyzing material remains of past societies

Behavior- measurable actions, thoughts, or feelings displayed by humans

Behaviorism- believes psychologists can predict and control or modify human behavior by identifying the factors that motivate it in the first place. I.e. things that happen in your childhood have an effect on the character of individuals later on

Benjamin Spock 1903-1998
He believed in a permissive approach to child rearing
He encouraged parents to be loving, flexible and supportive

B.F Skinner 1904-1990
Proved that pigeons could be trained to peck at a particular colored disk to get food rewards
Rats received food rewards for pressing a bar in a complicated sequence

Binary opposites- two opposite forces I.E. good and evil

The Bystander Effect
John Darley and Bibb Latane in 1968 first studied this after the murder of kitty Genovese in 1964
Typical experiment: the confederate is among other participants and an emergency situation is stage and the researchers measure the length of time it takes to react and who intervenes if any one.
They found that the more people that are there, the less likely people are to help.
Bystanders go through a cognitive and behavioral process to determine if they will help
Notice that something is going on
Interpret the situation as being an emergency. At this point most people will read the social cues of others to determine if it is an emergency and if they need to intervene
Degree of responsibility felt. This is dependent on 3 things
Do they feel the person is deserving of help?
The competence of the bystander
The relationship between the by-stander and the victim
Form of assistance. This can be direct intervention or detour intervention (calling the authorities)
Implement the choice

Carl Jung- responsible for the identification of the extroverted (outward-looking) and introverted (inward-looking) personality types
Also known for his approach to the analysis of dreams

Clinical psychology- the branch of the discipline that develops programs for treating individuals suffering from mental illnesses and behavioral disorders

Conscious- the term used by psychologist