Missa: Jean Piaget and Adulthood Older Adulthood Essay

Submitted By nyande
Words: 625
Pages: 3

Intellectual Development

Can be defined as the development of thinking, learning, understanding, reasoning, problem solving and memory. It begins in infancy and continues throughout the whole lifespan.

Intellectual development in infants begins through sensory awareness and later through physical exploration of their surroundings.

Important milestones include:
By 6 months

By 12 months

By 18 months

By 2 years

By 3 years

Pre school children

By 4 years

Around 5 years

At 6 years

7 – 9 years



Older Adulthood

Jean Piaget (1894 – 1980)

Piaget is one of the most foremost theorists in intellectual development and described a series of stages of intellectual development in children.

The Sensorimotor Stage birth – 1 ½ / 2 years

The Pre-operational Stage 2 – 7 years

The Concrete Operational Stage 7 – 11 years

The Formal Operational Stage 11+ years

Language Development:

Noam Chomsky (1959) & Stephen Pinker (1994) - said that the ability to develop language is genetically programmed. It develops rapidly but depends on social contact

Stage of Development
About 3 months

About 12 months

About 2 years

About 3 years

About 4 years

About 5 years

Social Development:
There are great differences and cultural variations in how social relationships are experienced below are some general points to remember.
Life Stage
Social Development
Interacts with carers
2 months – smile at human faces
3 months – responds to adults talking
5 months – distinguishes familiar and non-familiar faces

Infants make emotional bonds with close carers
Later will play alongside other children – parallel play
First social learning (Primary socialisation)
Emotionally attached and dependent on carers
Begins to learn social roles within family which provides a safe base to explore social relationships with other children through play
Learns co-operative play
As they get older they become more independent and develop friendships based on mutual trust – this becomes increasingly important towards adolescence – develop circle of friends
Secondary Social Learning (socialisation)
Sense of self-worth more influenced by peers
Copy styles, beliefs, cultural values, behaviours from peers
Cope with sexual development and social transition to independence
Often seen as a time of “storm and stress”
Recent research shows may have a smooth transition into adulthood without serious parental conflict
Relationships and friendship networks are important
Dominated by forming adult sexual partnership and need for employment / career
For many marriage and parenthood are major social developments
Stressful period – time split between work, care of parents, older children leaving home and other family commitment, wider social activities. Some have less