Disasters are natural events that cause significant damage to life or property. These natural events can strike or occur at any moment in time. In order to prepare for such occurrences that can result in loss of property or life we need to understand the process of mitigation. There are many places around the world where people live and work in the proximity of dangerous volcanoes, and where the problems of decreasing the volcanic risk caused by future eruptions are becoming more and more difficult to solve as the population density increases with time (Dobran, 2004). Recently on the East coast there has been a disastrous hurricane named, Sandy. Sandy was our first Super Storm in history. This hurricane brought on many new problems that New York was not prepared for. Such as; large sections of New York City’s subway systems being waterlogged and destroyed by Hurricane Sandy (Pyper, 2012). This tragic event raised important questions on how to better protect from flooding and how to revise the protection plan in case of sea level flooding or in this case, a hurricane (Pyper, 2012). Not even weeks after Hurricane Sandy, New York City experienced another disastrous blow from a stratovolcano. This eruption gave little to no warning of its arrival. In the midst of scrambling to rebuild and make New York a safe place to live once again, this volcanic eruption decided to crush all hope. This large steep sided volcano erupted violently, releasing high volatile content, ash, layers of lava flow and fragmental debris (Hyndman, 2011). The rhyolite lava spews down the slope moving slowly and cooling while reaching about 50 kilometers past the base of the volcano. This stratovolcano bursts gas driven ash and broken rubble 20 kilometers into the atmosphere along with a mixture of rain, snow and dirt pouring downslope as a lahar, or mudflow (Hyndman, 2011). This could potentially result in tens or hundreds of thousands dead and affect millions of people who live in the 30 kilometer radius of the volcano where the infrastructures are totally inadequate for the territory of such a high risk (Dobran, 2004). All of these hazards coming from this one disastrous stratovolcano will result in loss of much more than property. The pyroclastic flow which is the mixture of hot volcanic ash and steam rushes downslope at about 100 miles per second (Hyndman, 2011). Early warning for this is virtually impossible. Rushing ahead of this pyroclastic flow is a lateral blast of ash known as a surge (Gaudru, 2012). This surge is full of poisonous, even lethal gases and this will be the beginning of the destruction in New York City. These poisonous gases consist of; sulfur compounds, chlorine and fluorine that reacts with water to form damaging acids that are harmful to the eyes, skin and respiratory system of humans and animals even in small concentrations (Hyndman, 2011). The most damaging hazard in this case for humans will be the lahars produced from this stratovolcano. These lahars will proceed very quickly and possess great destructive power (Hyndman, 2011). The heavy rain fall and already flooded areas in New York City will add great velocity to the potential destruction. The ash produced from this violent volcano will cover New York City like a blanket of snow that’s about three to four feet deep. The danger from the build-up of ash will cause roofs of homes and businesses to collapse (Gaudru, 2012). In addition, transportation systems will be largely affected from the ash clogging and vent system or air-intake systems creating a city wide blockage for safely evacuating the affected areas (Hyndman, 2011). New York City already has response plans set up for the preparation of a potential hazard or disastrous event. The following are agencies likely to respond to a disaster in New York City, depending on the scale and nature of what the disaster might be. When a disaster such as this volcanic eruption strikes the first section to receive this…
Risk Assessment and Mitigation Plan
Step 1: Brainstorm possible risks.
Step 2: For each risk, assign a High/Medium/Low value for both likelihood of occurrence and potential impact on the project.
Step 3: Develop a mitigation strategy for each High/High, High/Medium and Medium/High risk.
Consider developing mitigation strategies for the Medium/Medium risks.
| |Potential Impact on…
global equalization. The key object of emission price mechanism
Mitigation costs vary depending on the nature, horizon and stringency of the global stabilization target, and the emission pathway travelled to reach it.
The global environmental objective is the key determinant of emission prices and aggregate global costs. Lower stabilization levels, which reduce the risks of dangerous climate change, generally increase mitigation costs. Global costs at 2020, as a share of gross world product (GWP)…
Week One: Introduction to Strategic Management
1.1 Define strategic management and planning.
1.2 Create an organizational mission and vision statement.
1.3 Analyze an organization in terms of its structure, culture, and purpose.
1.4 Develop a strategic plan.
Read Ch. 1–3 & Ch. 2 Appendix of Strategic Management.
Read Ch. 7 of Strategy: Winning in the Marketplace.
Review this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings.
Mr Adam Maxwell
Peak National Park Authority
2 Chapel Street
Re: Application Number NP/SM/0113/0062
Your Ref: NN 1413
Date: Tuesday, February 26, 2013
Dear Mr Maxwell
Following receipt of you letter ‘Consultation on a planning application’ we would like to raise an objection to the planning being granted on the following grounds.
1. Planning history of the site…
January 9, 2014
DRAMA PAPER: PLANNING IN THEATRE
When planning a theatre production, a lot more work goes into it than one would think at first glance, and it is not all from the actors. Every person on set of a production has a “part” to play; be it on or off stage. But, before the parts are placed there are steps to follow. Once the steps have been followed a wonderful production will be the conclusion.
Budget: in planning anything it is very important to have not only a strict…
Week 3: Risk Mitigation Plans
ITT Technical Institute
Week 3: Risk Mitigation Plans
1. It is important to prioritize the IT infrastructure into risks, threats, and vulnerabilities because; knowing what can go wrong and what caused it can better prepare the staff on incidents.
2. If the risk mitigation plan is constructed well, then it will identify the cost of doing business that is affected by an event. By having the money that could be lost by an event, helps the company…
Planning To Plan
Have you ever heard the saying 'Those who fail to plan, plan to fail'? While I can't speak to all facets of life, this is certainly true in business. Managers find themselves planning for all sorts of things. So much so, that planning is one of the four major functions of management. In doing so, a manager can be certain that he or she is working toward some organization goal.
There are three main types of plans that a manager will use in his or her pursuit of company goals, which…
Mitigation Case Blog: Joplin Tornado
Located in the analysis below, you will find a review of The Response To The 2011 Joplin, Missouri, Tornado Lessons Learned Study developed by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) published in December, 2011. This analysis is focused on mitigation activities regarding this disastrous event. It will provide insight on positive outcomes of multiple mitigation actions along with identifying areas of opportunity. Additionally, it will examine the ICS (Incident…
Morey Unit Prevention and Mitigation Analysis
Riots and disturbances in prisons are not a new phenomenon in the United States and in the past decades there has been a continuation of these destructive and violent events. The prison riot at a phenomenon can be used in a number of ways. The term riot can be defined as the act of inmates taking control of a significant portion of a prison or correctional center for a significant period of time (American Correctional Association, 2010). Also, the term…