Essay on Modern Organisations by Amitai Etzioni

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Pages: 21


Book Review - Bhushan Indravadan Jangla

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ORGANISATIONS DEFINED Organizations are social units deliberately constructed and reconstructed to seek specific goals. Corporations, armies, schools, hospitals, churches, and prisons are included; tribes, classes, ethnic groups, friendship groups and families are excluded. Organizations are characterized by: 1) Divisions of labor, power, and communication responsibilities, divisions, which are not random or traditionally patterned, but deliberately planned to enhance the realization of specific goals. 2) The presence of one or more power centers which control the concerted efforts of the organization and direct
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These were; 1) Station productivity 2) Intra organizational strain as indicated by the incidence of tension and conflict among organizational subgroups 3) Organizational flexibility SURVIVAL AND EFFECTIVENESS MODELS A system model constitutes a statement about relationships, which, if actually existing, would allow an organization to maintain itself and to operate. There are two major sub – types of system models. One may be called as the Survival model – a set of requirements that, if fulfilled, allows the system to exist. The second sub – type is the Effectiveness model which defines a pattern of interrelations among the elements of the system. There is considerable difference between the two sub models. Alternatives, which are equally satisfactory from the viewpoint of the survival model, have a different value from the viewpoint of the effectiveness model. The survival model will not record significant changes in organizational operations; the model only asks whether the basic requirements of the organization are being met. THE CLASSICAL APPROACH The search for greater effectiveness and efficiency in organizations gave rise to the Classical Theory of Administration, or more appropriately Scientific Management. Workers were seen as motivated by economic rewards and a clearly defined division of labor characterized the organization with highly specialized personnel and by a distinct hierarchy of authority. Another theory, which came into