One good example is the concept of "psychological stress", which is now so prevalent in our culture, yet was rarely mentioned fifty years ago. Also, terms like defense mechanisms and Freudian slips have become a part of our regular vocabulary rather than strictly psychological terms.
Appropriate study techniques (PQ4R) include:
Preview the material
Make your own questions
Reflect on the material
Recite to demonstrate your recall
Review the questions you originally developed
The goals of the psychologist conducting basic research are to Describe, Explain, Predict, or Control behavior.
Describing Behavior: accurately describing behavior requires the following:
a. First, the psychologist must observe and accurately measure the behavior.Behavioral data includes the psychologist's report of observations about the behavior and the conditions under which the behavior occurs.
b. The type of behavioral data collected depends on the level of analysis. The focus of observations can range from broad, general, and global aspects all the way to minute details of the organism under study.
c. Objectivity refers to the scientific necessity to record behavioral data as facts—as they really exist—not as we hope them to exist. Objectivity helps ensure the advancement of scientific understanding of behavior, free ofsubjective ideas, personal biases, prejudices, and expectations that would distort the data collected.
Explaining behavior: explanations deliberately go beyond the basic description of what can be observed.
1. Single observations cannot answer how or why a particular behavior occurs.
2. Behavior results from a combination of many internal factors (e.g., intelligence, developmental stage, physical health, genetics) and external factors (e.g., peer pressure, socioeconomic status) that all influence one another.
3. Psychologists must synthesize observed behavior with existing scientific knowledge to arrive at causal explanations about the behavior.
Observation: The roommate does not actively participate in class.
Explanation: Because he or she is also very quiet in many other social situations, perhaps his behavior in class is “caused” by his shyness.
Predicting behavior: involves statements about the likelihood of a specific behavior occurring.
1. Scientific prediction is based on an understanding of relationships between behaviors and the mechanisms that link those behaviors to certain predictors.
2. Causal prediction specifies conditions under which behaviors will change.
Controlling behavior: involves directing, suppressing, or changing behavior.
1. This is particularly true for applied psychologists, whose goal is to improve individuals’ quality of life.
2. Controlling behavior means influencing a behavior to happen or not to happen, and influencing the nature of the behavior as it is being performed.
3. Throughout your textbook are examples of how psychologists work to change or help people control behavior (e.g., improving, mental health, helping people change unhealthy behaviors, and teaching parenting skills).
First, psychologists study human behavior. Second, psychologists don't gauge anything at a glance. They need time to gather information about individuals before trying to understand them.
The word psychology is made up of two Greek words—psyche, which means the soul, and logos, which means the study of. So, literally, the word means the study of the mind or soul. The soul here refers to all non physical aspects of a person. In truth, psychology refers to the observation of behavior patterns and mental processes. In other words, psychology is the science of human and animal behavior.
Science is a body of knowledge derived from systematic observations and careful measurements. This body of knowledge is gained through research that can often be