Module 11 Essay

Submitted By taylors_22
Words: 1802
Pages: 8

Introduction
1. Two groups in Kingdom Animalia
a. Invertebrates- Animals without backbones
b. Vertebrates- Animals with backbones
Symmetry
Three types of Symmetry
Spherical Symmetry- cut into two identical halves by any cut that runs through the center
Radial Symmetry- cut into two identical halves by any longitudinal cut through its center
Bilateral Symmetry- cut into two identical halves by one longitudinal cut through its center

Phylum Arthropoda
Insects on earth and in the sea (shrimp, crabs, etc.)
Phylum porifera
1. Live in oceans and stay where they are
2. Classified in an animal kingdom
Because they feed like animals
3. Shaped flat, tubular, branched (many different ways)
4. Anatomy
Epidermis- outside layer of sponge
Mesenchyme- like a cytoplasm; jelly-like substance separating Epidermis from inside
5. Two different support systems
Spicules- made up of glass-like substances, makes structure stronger (made up of silica)
Spongin- second support system; web of proteins used for support
6. Collar Cells (aka choanocytes)- have flagella that push and pull water and food to sponge and gets rid of excess waste.
7. Amoebocytes- cell that moves using a pseudopod
A . Functions:
Digest food
Exchange gasses with surroundings
Produce lime or silica to make spicules
8. Uses:
Clean
Padding
Painting tools
Surgical swabs
9. Reproduction
a. Asexual- budding
b. Can regenerate
c. Produce gemmule- cluster of cells encased in spicule shell
d. Sexual- collar cells can produce eggs in one sponge and sperms in another sponge physum cnidaria
1. Includes starfish, sea urchins, jellyfish, etc.
2. Two basic forms:
a. Polyp- doesn’t move (produces medusa)
b. Medusa- moves (jellyfish)
3. Characteristics
a. Epithelium- cells outside (one free surface) (sticky)
House nerve cells- sense outside stimuli and respond
House contractile cells- bend organisms body for movement
4. Mesoglea- jelly-like substance in cap of jellyfish
5. Have radial symmetry
6. Body consists of
Tentacles
Mouth
Gut-like sac
7. Tentacles have nematocysts (what sting you)
8. Extracellular digestion- digest things outside of them
9. No structures for respiration or excretion waste goes through skin
10. Reproduce
Reproduce sexually one time in life at least
Reproduce asexually most of the time
Specific Members of Phylum cnidaria
1. Hydra
a. Asexual reproduction- budding
b. Sexual reproduction
c. Testes- hold sperm
d. Ovaries- hold egg
2. Sea Anemone
a. Has symbiotic relationship with clownfish (won’t sting clownfish)
b. Nematocysts have a chemical recognition system
3. Corals
a. Tiny polyps living in self-made stone like structures
b. Cup is open when coral feeds
c. When cup is closed it can’t feed but it is protected
4. Jellyfish
a. Genus Aurelia- goes through polyp before medusa
b. Sexual reproduction
c. Planula- egg of a jellyfish that can swim away and attach to bottom to form phylum annelida
1. Contains one type of worm
2. Anatomy
a. Clitellum- segment that’s swelled (helps with reproduction)
b. Anterior end- contains head
c. Posterior end- contains body and tail
3. Movement
a. Setae- bristles that anchor worm
b. Two muscle layers
Circular layer- when it contracts it gets longer and thinner
Longitudinal layer- when it contracts it gets shorter and thicker
Feeding habits of earthworms
1. Has complete digestive system
a. Mouth
b. Pharynx- suction that allows dirt to come in to eat
c. Crop
d. Gizzard- muscular organ that grinds up food
e. Intestine- absorbs nutrients and gets rid of waste
f. Nephridia- kidney-like organs that excrete waste from worm via nephridiopores (holes where waste is excreted)
2. Benefits of feeding habits to earthworm and environment
a. Lives inside its food
b. Loosens soil and fertilizes soil
Respiratory and circulatory systems in an earthworm
1. Has open circulatory system
a. No heart, only cavities
b. Two main blood vessels
Dorsal blood vessel- takes blood to aortic arches
Ventral blood vessel- takes blood everywhere
Aortic arches- pumps blood…