Goals and dreams an individual has are often only that person’s goals and dreams because once these ultimate destinations are reached; happiness is thought to also be achieved along with them. With this said, it seems that the true terminus sought out is happiness, which is shadowed behind its many facades. These facades are material items like money or fame, in other words, concepts that you would think would make one truly happy, in the end lead a person in the opposite direction of it. So what is indisputably true happiness? Should people even have the goal of happiness in the first place and direct their acts accordingly? These perplexing questions are what many philosophers have deliberated and disputed over throughout all human existence. Happiness is an idea that revolves around perspective and attainability. A study of the concept of happiness reveals that in Western thought opinions on the characterization of happiness actually shows to vary from person to person, however there seems to be no question that every human strives toward this emotional equilibrium with themselves and the world. “Those who think that a science of ethics can be founded on happiness as the first principle tend to maintain that there can be only one right conception of human happiness. The right conception consists in the cumulative possession of all real goods in the course of a life time with nothing to be desired.” Mortimer Adler shares that there can be many misconceptions of happiness pertaining to its definition (529). There are two types of ways to really define the word, in a psychological sense and in an ethical sense. The psychological sense would define it as meaning “contentment,” however, in its ethical sense of term it means a whole life well lived. When men are questioned on what they should do to achieve happiness it is answered only specifically related to the personal preference or individual opinion, certainly not by scientific demonstration or analysis. “But this applies to the individual only Locke does not think it is possible to show that when two men differ in their notions of happiness, one is right and the other is wrong. “Through all men’s desires tend to happiness yet they are not moved by the same object. Men may choose different things, and yet all choose right.” This perspective pertaining to happiness shows that happiness is truly indefinite. This proposes a problem to all of humanity and their individual strides towards their happiness. “Hence there can be no universal solution in terms of desire of the problem of how to be happy.” Adler is stating the point that each person’s ideas of happiness will end up clashing with each other, not everyone can be happy (340). This is often because of whether one’s idea of happiness is morally correct or not. With further insight into the focus, happiness is remote from being the whole good, making it even harder to gather the hope to attain it. “But even if happiness combined with moral worth does constitute the supreme good, Kant still refuses to admit that happiness, as a practical objective, can function as a moral principle.” Adler seems miffed with fellow philosopher, Kant, and proceeds to disagree with his statement including happiness functioning as an ethical code. This contradiction is correct despite what Kant believes. Moral philosophy and ethical philosophy are two things that shockingly cannot and heed to apply to feeling happy, and reaching happiness. Many will find that morals do not apply to their desired happiness, they end up having to break morals just be happy for a moment. Even if happiness was combined with moral worth, it would not constitute the supreme good; happiness cannot and will not ever function as a moral principle. It cannot be a condition. In a world where happiness and morals can be combined, then everyone could quite possibly attain it in a parallel way. A man can only hope to be happy rendering to moral laws. The ethics of duty
internal sanction of morality.
The internal sanction deals with a person’s individual conscience or sense of duty. What makes an action morally wrong or right is if a person has negative feelings towards their action versus if a person has positive feelings towards their action. These feelings however are subjective to our customs, culture and the general consensus on morality. Mill argues that people have a general inclination towards social unity, and the greatest happiness principle is an extension…
Moral philosophy is part of the field of ethics where philosophers discuss and argue their opinions and views on regards of defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Morality could be interpreted in many different ways because at the same time is a set of standards or principles derived from a personal code of conduct based on religion, philosophy or it can derive from a standard that a person believes should be universal. Since we live in a society where we all have to live…
The ethical systems of Kant and Mill: A comparison and contrast
What part does happiness play in determining the morality of an act in a situation? Can a concept that ties morality to the search of happiness truly be rational? What of the opposite? Is it possible to view every situation with objectivity, never taking into account an emotion (like happiness)? The questions above concern themselves with the part of the central tenets of the ethical views of two very important philosophers…
* To know what morality dictates it is necessary to know by what standard human actions should be judged
* Moral instinct
* Its existence is disputable
* It does not tell us whether something is right or wrong in a particular case. Rather, this instinct supplies only general principles. Thus, although general laws are a necessary part of moral thinking, it is the application of these laws to specific cases that constitutes morality itself.
* Yet our moral…
West Valley College
The notion of an ethics based on utility — usefulness for human concerns, especially human happiness — was one of the revolutionary Continental ideas of the Enlightenment period. Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794), for example, in his extremely influential work On Crimes and Punishments, argues that punishments should be inflicted only insofar as they are useful for human purposes; and that governments should not think themselves free to punish inhumanely…
English II HP
2 December 2013
Obtaining information on morality you can find that there’s no proper definition, only
ones own perception can be pertained. The definition of morality varies but this one would
probably be the most accurate definition, ‘P
rinciples concerning the distinction between right
and wrong or good and bad behavior’.
Different societies have different moral codes.
In a sense,
morals can relate to the study of what people perceive to be right and what can generally seem…
it is the language of morality that is lost in this “state of grave disorder” instead of the natural sciences (MacIntyre 2). MacIntyre, thus turns to an analysis of history as the only way to understand morality where he believes he discovers the very epoch where the catastrophe took place, the Enlightenment.
The Enlightenment was a time when philosophy played a central role in society, unlike today, where philosophers attempted to discover a rational justification of morality in a secular world.…
population gain their sense of morality from their religion. The tendency for religious leaders to be perceived as speakers for morality is something that is seen worldwide. Anywhere there is religion, there are religious leaders; and although there isn't a biological difference between the leaders and followers of any religion that would make the leaders superior, they are still often "regarded as having special moral insight" (Rachels, 2003). In chapter 4 of The Elements of Morality (4th ed), James Rachels…
possible to assess the basis of our feelings and come to the conclusion that such a feeing is unreasonable.
Question 2. What reasons does Hume give for his view that ‘sentiment’ not reason is the basis of morality?
Hume believes that sentiment (emotions) and not reason is the basis of morality because reason alone is incapable of determining right from wrong. Hume states that sentiments are a type of impression, which we learn from experience. It is these sentiments that give us the impulse for…
that actions must be universal for them to be classified as either moral or immoral.
John Stuart Mill on the other hand was a British philosopher born in 1806 and died in 1873. Among his many developments is the utilitarianism theory that explains morality. Mill argues that the moral worth of an action is determined by its utility (pleasure or satisfaction derived from the action). Mill seems to suggest that our emotions and desires form a great basis on which we should judge our morals. For example…