CHAPTER 1 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND MANAGEMENT
What Are Organizations?
Organizations are social inventions for accomplishing common goal s through group efforts.
Essential characteristic is the coordinated presence of people, not necessarily things.
The field of organizational behavior is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively
Virtually all organizations have survival as a goal
The field of organizational behavior is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change.
The field of organization behavior is concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamwork.
What Is Organizational Behavior?
Organizational behavior refers to the attitudes and behaviors of individual and groups in organizations.
Human resources management refers to programs, practices, and systems to acquire, develop, and retain employees in organizations.
Why Study Organizational Behaviour?
Makes a difference
How Much Do You Know About Organization Behaviour?
Goal Of Organizational Behabiour
Management is defined as the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others. Managers acquire, allocate, and utilize physical and human resources to accomplish.
Evidence-based management involves translating principles based on the best scientific evidence into organizational practices.
Early Prescriptions Concerning Management
Two basic phases to this prescription
The Classical View and Bureaucracy
Starts in early 1900s
Acquired their experience in military settings, mining operations, and factories that produced everything from cars to candy
The classical viewpoint: an early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of labour, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making.
Scientific management: Frederick Taylor’’s system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks.
Bureaucracy: Max Weber’s ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and promotion based on technical competence.
Weber saw bureaucracy as an “ideal type” or theoretical model that would standardize behavior in organizations and provide workers with security and a sense of purpose.
The Human Relations Movement and a Critique of Bureaucracy
Hawthorne studies: research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric near Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment.
Human relations movement: a critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needs.
Contemporary Management----The Contingency Approach
First, contemporary scholars and managers recognize the merits of both approaches. The classical advocates pointed out the critical role of control and coordination in getting organizations to achieve their goals. The human relationists pointed out the danger of certain forms of control and coordination and addressed the need for flexibility and adaptability
Second, contemporary scholars have learned that management approaches need to be tailored to fit the situation.
Contingencies illustrate the complexity of organizational behavior and show why we should study it systematically.
What Do Managers Do?
Interpersonal roles: establish and maintain interpersonal relations; serve as symbols of their organization rather than active decision makers. (Figurehead, leader, liaison)
Informational roles: concern with the various ways managers receive and transmit information. (monitor, disseminator, spokesperson)
Decision roles: (entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource…