In these tough economic times managers are faced with frequent downsizing and regular changes being made within many organizations. To be an effective leader who motivates and implements changes management staff, should be well equipped with various motivational techniques to address change. There is a wide range of motivational methods used to introduce significant changes. Managers need a strong understanding of each motivational method to ensure success within their team. Several theoretical concepts support the many techniques that are used by managers and leader.
Benefits to Motivation
Health care managers who lead employees through motivation establish environments where people feel constantly inspired to accomplish higher quality work (Donald J. Lombardi and John R. Schermerhorn, 2007). Management theory describes motivation as the drive within people that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort they expend while working. Highly motivated individuals tend to work harder than an unmotivated person would (Donald J. Lombardi and John R. Schermerhorn, 2007). Properly motivating staff can benefit a company’s bottom line by establishing a pleasant work environment with happier employees, leaving the company with lower rates of dismissal and turnover. Management should consider several motivational techniques to use when attempting to achieve goals.
Motivation Based on Human Needs
Motivation based on human needs were seen by Maslow as people seeking satisfaction from five levels of needs. Physiological, safety, and social concerns are lower-level need and esteem and self-actualization concerns are among the higher-level needs (Donald J. Lombardi and John R. Schermerhorn, 2007). There are two principals at the center of Maslow’s theory. These principles are the deficit principle and the progression principle. The deficit principle suggests that a satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior, whereas progression suggests that no need can be obtained until the lower level need is satisfied. Managers need to recognize that blocked or deprived needs may negatively influence behaviors or attitudes toward work (Donald J. Lombardi and John R. Schermerhorn, 2007). Providing satisfaction of needs may have positive impacts on motivation. David McClelland motivation theory focused on individual needs. The need for power, affiliation, and achievement that develop over time as a result of individual life experiences. Managers are encouraged to recognize the strength of each need in themselves and in other people (Donald J. Lombardi and John R. Schermerhorn, 2007). Frederick Herzberg’s two factor theory of job motivation explains the differences between the satisfiers and dis-satisfiers of a job (Herzberg, Mausner, & Bloch, 1994). Herzberg believed the factors that motivate people at work are different but not quite the opposite of the factors that cause dissatisfaction (Chapman, 2014). These two factors are referred to satisfier factors and hygiene factors. Interpersonal relations, quality of supervision, environment, salary, organizational policies and administration, all contribute to job satisfaction and greatly impact how motivated individuals will be to work harder. Job satisfaction is achieved when employees have opportunities for advancement, personal growth, have feelings of responsibility, and feel they are recognized for achievements.
Motivation Based on Process
The expectancy, equity, and goal-setting theories each offer insight and advice on how people make the choice to work hard or not. These choices are made based on rewards, possible outcomes, and their personal preferences. Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory suggests that the motivation to work depends on the relationships among expectancy, valence, and instrumentality (Donald J. Lombardi and John R. Schermerhorn, 2007). Managers using the expectancy theory need to link effort to performance,