More than a decade has passed since Nelson Mandela, in his capacity as President of the Republic of South Africa, addressed the Heads of State and Government of the then Organization of African Unity (OAU). In his speech, he focused on one of the biggest dilemmas the world had been facing since the end of the Cold War: should outside forces intervene in the internal affairs of a state when the civilian population is suffering massive violations of human rights and the state is unable or unwilling to fulfil its responsibility to protect its own people? Although his message was conveyed to those present in Ouagadougou, its essence can be extended to the entire international community. With the fall of the iron curtain and the end of the Cold War, the dynamics of international politics began experiencing a series of changes. Gradually, the classical war between nations turned into a series of conflicts characterized by continuous attacks against non-¬combatant civilians within nations, with no clear boundaries, with no respect for international laws, and where violence resulted in the displacement of thousands of people every year. Internal and regional conflicts involved different kinds of actors, deprived people of their basic human rights, and put at stake the lives of the most vulnerable. As time passed, and with the tragic events in Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, and Kosovo engraved in people’s minds, some of the main pillars of the Westphalia system were brought into question and, with them, the principles of sovereignty and non-interference. Trying to move away from the controversial notion of the droit d’ingérence of the 1990s, the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) norm sought to recast the issue in terms of responsibility and protection rather than of the right to intervene. The prospect was that a state’s ¬failure to protect its own citizens would no longer be seen, as in the past, as no one else’s business, but as the entire world’s concern; it was a straightforward answer to “never again.” During the 2005 United Nations World Summit, a restrictive and narrow understanding of R2P, based on the report on this norm by the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, was agreed upon by world leaders. The report stated that each individual state had the responsibility to protect its population from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity. The document also highlighted that the international community was prepared to take collective action on a case-by-case basis, through the Security Council and in accordance with the Charter, in a timely and decisive manner. Much emphasis was given to the importance of conflict prevention, which included countries assisting other countries under stress before the break-out of a crisis or conflict. In 2006, those provisions were reaffirmed by the Security Council through the adoption of resolution 1674 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, and through resolution 1706 on the deployment of a United Nations peacekeeping force in Darfur, Sudan. The formulation of R2P was the starting point of the international community’s will to act to prevent and halt mass atrocities. However, as a work in progress, R2P has been dealing with numerous difficulties resulting from the traditional tension between protection obligations, which are rooted in international law, and traditional perceptions of security, which are linked to the principles of state sovereignty and non-interference. Now, the dilemma concerns how the Security Council links its overly-ambitious resolutions and mandates with the reality on the ground. Generally speaking, UN peacekeepers working in R2P scenarios are not provided with sufficient guidance or resources to protect civilians under imminent threat; this applies also to those who could be exposed to such threats or risks in the near future and may require preventive measures to avoid direct attacks. Moreover, UN
—and she appealed, blundering in, to the child. "It's all a mere mistake and a worry and a joke—and we'll go home as fast as we can!"
Our companion, on this, had responded with a strange, quick primness of propriety, and they were again, with Mrs. Grose on her feet, united, as it were, in pained opposition to me. Flora continued to fix me with her small mask of reprobation, and even at that minute I prayed God to forgive me for seeming to see that, as she stood there holding tight to our friend's…
November 12, 2014
Patriotism is a spirit of people. A person who loves his country can do anything which is good for his country. In fact, every citizen should have the responsibility to show respect to the country in which they live. Patriotism is a strong power and it makes people act more faithful and more confidently. It is a quite positive word in this generation.
First of all, people should have a strong national pride and self-confidence, and the…
6 November 2014
In literacy, the sea seems to be used as a symbol lots of times. This has proven to be the case, in
by Kate Chopin, where the author used the sea as a symbol it was referred to at
the beginning, when the awakening for Edna first started; it was also the final destination for
Edna. The story is rich in description and uses a lot of symbolism. The sea symbolizes both the
birth and death of the ideas of freedom…
Professor Gail Marie
October 2, 2013
I interviewed, Mr. Huang, Chinese, and the owner of the Eric Huang LLP C.P.A, graduated from the University of Yale and earn the certification of C.P.A three years later after he got degree. The first question was how do you step into the area you current at? Why don’t you choose other type of job? He said that the area he is working on is fitting his major in the university; also he prefers to be an accountant. Right now he only wants to…
His loyalty to Elijah Muhammad was forever. "Mr. Muhammad as black America's moral, mental, and spiritual reformer." (Haley, 294) Hence, Malcolm X had no doubts about the extremist message of the Nation of Islam. He always respected and stayed behind Elijah Muhammad in everything. In contrast, Mr. Mohammad feared Malcolm X's talent would struggle power with him. As a result, the mistake statement of Malcolm after the President Kennedy's assassination was rational reason that forced him temporarily…
English Period 2
24 March 2014
Why People Steal
The issue of stealing is one of the most widespread crimes, and its relative ease compared to other crimes opens it up to aspiring criminals (Berlin). It allows it to develop in many humans and societies even though it is regarded as a problem in most societies, and it becomes more likely to be used as a coping mechanism (Smithstein). In addition, it is also popular as rebellious and anti-establishment behavior…
English IV – 1st Period
5 September, 2013
Article 1.1 response
I had listened to plenty of great songs in this summer, especially one that I still can't get rid of it in my head. It is the hit summer single "Blurred Lines", its brisk melody wins the favor of many people. I'm the one of the people. This song just makes me feel how summer feels like. Once by chance, my English teacher let us read about an article "The Blurred Lines of Copyright Law: Robin Thicke v. Marvin…
pleasure than are guests from other countries (Pingitore, Huang, and Greif 4). The article is written to warn and caution people of the changes evolving in the hospitality industry internationally. This a highbrow article as it is written as an academic and formal writing.
In search of finding ways that hospitality is being taught today, I interviewed Professor Jeffery Elsworth from the Michigan State University. Since coming to Michigan State, Mr. Elsworth has helped restructure the curriculum for hospitality…
grow and continue to be successful.
1. Mrs. Clea Ning wants a graph of her customer growth over the past 3 years (starting with Assign 1 as year 1) and then 2 years for Assign 2 and then projected outward for the next 2 years using some tool that she heard was available in Excel somewhere under charts…
It is estimated in year 4 that there will be 34 customers
It is estimated in year 5 that there will be 37 customers
2. Mrs. Ning also wants graphs that represents her…
patient Mrs. X shied away from learning how to care for her colostomy, refusing even to look at the colostomy during colostomy care. Subsequently Mrs. X now asks appropriate questions, has become more involved even to the point of changing her colostomy appliance. During this process the nurse encourages the patient by asking open ended questions about her feelings, the nurse also assures the patient that when she is ready to talk or learn someone will be available to answer her questions. Mr. L is…