Mr_Ranjito Essay

Submitted By Shazza116
Words: 5484
Pages: 22

Year 12 IPT Summaries
Topic 2: Information Systems and Databases
Information systems

the characteristics of an information system, namely: the organisation of data into information: Data must be organised before it can be stored and analysed by the information system. Organising may require sorting, summarising or classifying. Data in an information system is organised into data structures using such organisational methods as data dictionaries. the analysing of information to give knowledge: knowledge from accessing information is the purpose of an information system. The information must be analysed in order for this to be achieved. Information systems provide a range of tools for the analysis of data, such as tables, queries and reports. People make decisions based on the information they receive from an information system. the different types of and purposes for information systems, including systems used to: process transactions. Transaction processing systems collect, store, modify and retrieve the daily transactions of an organisation. Some examples of the application of TPSs are buying goods at a point-of-sale (POS) terminal, processing credit card payments and tracking receipts of materials from suppliers. Organisations rely heavily on their TPS. There are two types of transaction processing: batch processing and real-time processing. provide users with information about an organisation. These provide information about the performance of the organisation to the managers. This involves the production of reports on sales, inventory, payroll, orders and payroll. This is used to make decisions and motivate employees help decision-making. Decision support systems (DSSs) assist people to make decisions by providing information, models and analysis tools. A DSS can be used on a daily basis or when an organisation has to react to something unexpected or make changes. One example of a DSS is a system that analyses the stock market and helps the user make decisions about buying and selling shares. A DSS creates a mathematical model of the variables affecting the decision, using statistical tools, databases, spreadsheets and graphics. The model allows a manager to ask what-if questions by changing one or more of the variables and seeing the projected results. The DSS depends on the accuracy of the mathematical model and the ability of the manager to formulate appropriate questions. Expert systems are a type of DSS. manage information used within an organisation. These provide an effective way to complete tasks in the organisation. A variety of appropriate software tools are available for the editing and production of high quality documents and to provide both internal and external communication.
Major types of information systems:
Resources & Processes Used
Transaction processing system (TPS)
Processes transatcions
Collection & storage
Backup of data
Batch & real-time processing
Decision support system (DSS)
Provides information to help with analysis and make decisions
Risk anaylsis
Modelling tools
Cost-benefit analysis
Management information system (MIS)
Provides information to help with routine daily tasks of managers
Budget summaries
Production schedules
Stock inverntories
Office automation system (OAS)
Uses technology to operate office administration
Hardware: fax, computer, printers
Software: word processors and other applications
Communications such as video conferencing and email

Database information systems school databases holding information on teachers, subjects, classrooms and students
Environment: school community (students, staff, parents), educational services offered by the school, the flow of information between the school and authorities such as the NSW BOS and NSW Department of Education and Training, the hardware and software.
Purpose: to maintain the efficient operation of the school, its personnel, finances,