MS Research Paper

Submitted By knack4greatness
Words: 2797
Pages: 12

J K Heard
West GA Technical College
Psychology 101
November 25, 2012

Multiple Sclerosis and How it Affects the Brain and the Patient Psychologically

Abstract
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease that affects the nervous system, the spinal cord, and brain. MS is a disease that destroys the myelin sheath, the substance that engulfs and protects our nerve cells. After many years of research no one knows exactly what causes MS. In the past having MS was very difficult. It’s still is, but today we have great advances in medicine and technology to help fight the disease. This can help a person stay healthy, happy, and remain productive in society both mentally and physically.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease that affects the nervous system, the spinal cord, and brain. MS is a disease that destroys the myelin sheath, the substance that engulfs and protects our nerve cells. The carrier’s T-cell and Monocytes actually eat away at the myelin sheath. In MS the carrier’s immune system turns on itself and destroys the body from the inside-out. The damage it does blocks messages, slows down and stops the communication between our body and your brain. This research will detail the over affects MS has on the patient’s body, mind and emotional well-being. (Kalb, 2007)

Graph retrieved from: health.howstuffworks.com
After many years of research no one knows exactly what causes MS. Many doctors think it can be an autoimmune disease that happens when the body just simply starts to attack itself. MS is a disease that seems to affect more women than men. The first signs of the disease usually emerge between the ages of 20 and 40 years of age. In some cases, the disease is subtle, but many patients have lost the ability to walk, write and speak. As of today there is no known cure for MS, but there is good medicine to control the disease and keep it at bay. A lot of doctors’ suggestion exercise and possibly physical therapy. (NMSS, 20012)
According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, ”the condition affects approximately 400,000 Americans and is, with the exception of trauma, the most frequent cause of neurological disability beginning in early to middle adulthood.” (NMSS, 2012) As of today, there isn’t a cure for MS. But there are two leading types of therapies can treat MS: which are immunomodulation and immunosuppression. (Gingold, 2006)
Disease altering therapies decrease the amount/asperity of clinical attacks (relapses), defined as the decline of an MS symptoms and/ or the emergence of new ones, which can last at least 24 hours and is apart from a previous relapse by at least one month. Even though it is not exactly clear how these types of therapies work, it is thought that they have essentially immunomodulating traits. In MS, immune cells; are cells that play critical parts in our natural defense mechanisms to fight harmful intruders. These cells can breakdown and begin attacking all of our healthy nerve cells. (Gingold, 2006)
The immunomodulating properties of these therapies lead to a decrease in the number of malfunctioning immune cells by monitoring their activation. In addition, the natural division between the blood circulation and the brain, which is known as “blood-brain barrier,” is thought to become less penetrable. The barrier allows far less immune cells enter into the brain where these cells might cause damage by attacking the healthy nerve tissue. (Gingold, 2006)
Even though there isn’t a wide spread accepted explanation of these treatments, these agents are usually linked to a decre (Rosner, 1992)ase in the number of dispersing immune cells. Immune cells often play key roles in our body’s defense system to battle infection and sickness. Again, these cells can breakdown in MS and start causing damage. The immunosuppressant focused therapies create a reduction of the rogue immune cells in the blood circulation that eventually could cause damage to nerve cells. With an even…