Musi 131 Lecture Flash Cards Essay

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Organum type of medieval polyphony. Practice of adding new voice to chant

Discant: Polyphonic style with strict mensural meter in all three voices

Clausula: sections

Substitute clausula eplacement sections (to change update old clausula)

Mass Ordinary The texts sung regularly at each service. Ie: - Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Benedictus, Agnus dei

Mass Proper Those texts that changes according to the saint or season being celebrated ie: Introit, Gradual or Alleluia, Alleluia or tract, Offertory, Tract

Voice exchange vocal lines from one voice part repeat in another

Cantus Firmus: a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition

Renaissance (approx) 1450-1600 Revival of classical (roman/Greek) ideas and stability

Florid OrganumLike Free Organum but in sustained note (tenor) melismatic style

Motet: polyphonic composition based sacred text. Upper voice (duplum) gets its own words (often vernacular)

Contenance Angloise: Literally: “English style” practice of making phrases on triads and inversions with 3rds and 6ths

Chanson: (literally: Song) French lyric composition. French polyphonic composition that lasted from the late Middle Ages to the renaissance. Princely Court (Burgundy) songs (renaissance)

Troubadours, Trouveres Lyric poets or poet-musicians of France (12th-13th cent)

Form Fixes- French poem forms captured in musical form ie:

Rondeau (A, B, A, C, A) English: Roundelay 'circular' implying circular dancing to pieces that are sung/performed for.
Virelai: (14th-15th cent): A, B, B, A,
Ballade in the 14th-15th cent: 1-1-2

Madrigal Italian expressive polyphonic composition that uses word-painting aka Madrigalisms and is often through composed

Seconde Prattica- Practice of making music more emotionally expressive (subsequently ignoring prima prattica)

Stile Representativo Dramatically represented/acted out (like in an opera)

Concertato: concertato style, Italian stile concertato, musical style characterized by the interaction of two or more groups of instruments or voices. The term is derived from the Italian concertare, “concerted,” which implies that a heterogeneous group of performers is brought together in a harmonious ensemble

Basso Continuo is an instrumental bass line, which runs throughout a piece, over which the player improvises (‘realizes’) a chordal accompaniment. The bass may be figured, with accidentals and numerals (‘figures’) placed over or under it to indicate the harmonies required.

Enstinpees: medieval dance music

Lute Most popular solo instrument. Used to be played with plectrum but then with fingers. Other lutes of higher or lower pitch range were for accompaniment

Viol: Same family as violin. Most likely to be used in consort and was more serious than the violin back then

Flute (ren) one-piece wooden flute with holes instead of keys

Oboe (ren) (Shawn) double reed

Sackbut: Trombone of renaissance era

Cornett: made out of leather, wood and brass mouth piece


Organ: Smaller than organs today

Vihuela From Spain, like a lute (but resembles a guitar more closely) and is tuned in fourths

Canzona Instrumental imitation of a chanson

Variation sets: part of structure of early abstract music. Variations often based off Ground bass/ dumpe (musical chord themes used as subject for variations). Ex: Romanesca, Folia and Passamezzo. Commonly used variation: Diminution
Basse dance Low slow stately dance

Pavane Slow stately dance that has three parts and is in duple time

Galliiard Faster, livelier dance in triple time (may have three parts) tends to be rhythmically ambiguous.

Intabulation Vocal music arranged for instrumentation

Symphony/Symphoniae (early definition): sounding together

Sonata (piane forte) (early definition): instrumental sound. In the late 17th century were mostly diversional (not functional). Was primarily an Italian form. Tended to be