music 120 exam3 study terms Essay

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Chapter 12: Renaissance Era

Vernacular Music: the language of the people, as opposed to latin, the formal language of the church and sacred traditions

Culture of this period shaped by rise of monasteries and cloisters

Renaissance Era( 1453-1520)

The Music of early Christian Church called Plainchant( ft. monophobic and nonmetric melodies)

3 Different Chat Melodies( syllabic(1 note), neumatic(up to 5-6 notes), melismatic(many notes)) based on how many notes are set to each

Modes- scale patterns

Chapter 13:

Polyphonic: social singing with two or more melodic lines.

Monophonic: (ex happy birthday)

Madrigal: type of polyphonic; more important secular genre of era.

Chapter 14:

Humanism: an awakening/ without relying on tradition or religion

Acappella style: for voices alone, without instruments; use of imitation(copying vocal lines)

Motet- A sacred type of work with latin text for the use in Mass and other religious events

Homorhythm: all voices more together rhythmically

Cantus firmus: Fixed melody

Chapter 15:

Mass: solemn ritual of catholic church

Ordinary: text remain same for every mass

Proper: text will vary depending on day

Types of Ordinary of the Mass: Kyrie (prayer for mercy), Gloria (joyful hymn of praise), Credo (confession of faith and the longest of the Mass texts), Sanctus (songs of praise), Agnus Dei (fifth and last part of the Ordinary)

Counter Reformation: When Catholic Church was undergoing its own reform movement

Congregational singing: John Calvin believed that this should be the basis of Christian worship

Council of Trent: Longest committee meeting in history about reforming the Catholic church (1545-1563)

Prelude 3:
Virtuosity: Remarkable technical skill
Figured bass: Putting a numerical number above or below the bass which indicates which chord is needed

Chapter 16: Baroque

Opera-a large scale music drama that combines poetry, acting,scenery, and costumes with singing and instruments(everything is sung)

Aria: Part of the song that is of a highly emotional nature. This is what the audience waits for, what they cheer, and what they remember. Is very effective

Recitative: A type of vocal style that is similar to giving a speech

Libretto: text of opera
Librettist: someone who writes the text

Overture: introduce the melodies(heard at the beginning of most plays)

Sinfonias: Interludes in opera

Masque- a type of entertainment that combined vocal and instrumental music with dance and poetry
Ground base: A repeated phrase that descends along the chromatic scale, often symbolic of grief

Chapter 17:
Chorales: (Weekly hymns) Lutheran musical worship that is structured around specific congregational hymns.
Collegium musicum: A group of university students and musicians that gave regular concerts (directed by Johann Bach)

Chapter 18:
Oratorio: is a large scale dramatic genre with sacred text performed by solo voices,chorus, and orchestra; not staged; many similarities with orchestra

Da Capo Aria: a type of aria; it is ternary(ABA)

Ritornellos: Instrumental refrains that bring back certain passages

Suite: a group of short dances performed by diverse array of instruments either-Binary( A-A-B-B);or Ternary (A-B-A)
Concerto: a genre that generally featured either a solo instrument or a small group of soloists set against a large ensemble.

Three-movement sequence: A concerto usually has three movements in the sequence Allegro-Adagio-Allegro

Ensemble s- Numbers?- Duet,Trio,Quartet, etc…

Ritornello Form: first and last movements of concertos tended to follow a REFRAINED-base structure
Chapter 21:
Organ and harpsichord were the main keyboard instruments for Baroque period.

Keyboard plays improvised and created 3 types of free-form pieces.(preludes,toccatas, fugues)

Toccatas and Preludes- free forms with highly contrasting musical ideas and tempos. Keyboard players improvised and created preludes and toccatas

Fugue-contrapuntal composition in