There are several types of personality disorders. Personality disorders are psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impairs one’s social functioning. It is a serious mental health conditions affecting millions of people. The traits of these disorders causes distress, impairs a person’s ability to function and are a source of subjective stress (Abel et al.,201). Personality disorders negatively affect the quality of life for the people who suffer from them also affecting family members, spouses, partners, friends, co-workers and acquaintances. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) classifies personality disorders into three into three clusters based on descriptive similarities. Cluster A personalities includes the Paranoid, Schizoid, and Schizotypal Personality Disorder. Suffers of these disorders often appear odd or eccentric. Narcissistic Personality Disorder falls into cluster B. Other disorders in this cluster include Antisocial, Borderline and Histrionic. People with these disorders often appear dramatic, emotional, or erratic. Cluster C disorders are Avoidant, Dependent, and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders, and these individuals often appear anxious or fearful (DSM-IV). This paper will focus mostly on Narcissistic personality disorder, defining narcissistic personality disorder, its history and origin, symptoms, types of narcissistic personality disorder, causes, and contributing factors, testing, diagnosing and treating Narcissistic Personality Disorder and NPD and violence.
Defining Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Narcissistic personality disorder is a specific kind personality disorders. It is defined as a mental disorder. We all love ourselves and we do not look at it as a possible disorder, but people suffering with narcissistic personality disorder have a self-love, an inflated sense of their own importance and a profound need for admiration. Persons that suffer with this disorder inflates their own importance. They are arrogant, have a sense of entitlement ( i.e. unreasonable expectations and are superbly sensitive toward rejection. They cannot accept criticism constructively. This disorder leads its victims to believe that they're superior to others and have little regard for other people's feelings (i.e. takes advantage of others to achieve his or her goal). Loving one’s self is normal, but one who loves his reflection is cause for narcissism. The dependence on the existence of a reflection to produce the emotion of self-love makes it impossible for a narcissistic person to tell reality from fantasy. Narcissistic people tend to exaggerate their accomplishments, often appearing boastful or pretentious. They tend to talk endlessly about themselves and become annoyed if the topic of conversation turns to anyone else. They fantasies of having unlimited power, beauty, wealth, or achievement may consume them. The disorder typically begins by early adulthood, although some causes may be rooted in childhood experiences. Sigmund Freud started the psychological discussion of the disorder with his 1914 paper “on narcissism”. Narcissistic disturbance can be found in everyone. An individual’s existence would be in jeopardy if some narcissistic traits were not present. The occurrence of problems develops when narcissistic traits become exaggerated in an individual’s personality.
History: Narcissistic personality disorder roots dates back to ancient Greek mythology. Narcissistic is named after the Greek mythological hero Narcissus. Narcissus was a handsome man, loved by everyone but he refused to love anyone in return (Millon & Davis, 2000). He was so captivated by his own reflection in a pool of water, gazing at his beautiful and inaccessible image that he fell into the water and drowned.