Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass By William T. Douglas

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-Ulysses Grant
---Given command of union troops in the southeast missouri and led the capture of Fort Henry and Donelson in 1862
---critics wanted to remove him but lincoln refused
---Vicksburg and Chattanooga, Lincoln made Grant general in chief of all Union armies
---campaign against Petersburg and Richmond forced the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee, ending the war
-William T. Sherman
---served bravely at Shiloh and made his reputation leading a division in Ulysses S. Grant's army during the Vicksburg and Chattanooga campaigns.
---Sherman led some 100,000 forces against Atlanta and captured the city
---March to the Sea (reaching savannah)
---accepted Confederate General Joseph Johnston's surrender at Durham.
-Abraham Lincoln
---limited military experience
---studied military strategy and tactics and took an active role with his generals, visiting the army of the Potomac
--- issue the Emancipation Proclamation
-Frederick douglas
---taught himself to read and write as a boy
---autobiography, "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass," earned widespread recognition.
---started his own abolitionist newspaper, The North Star
-54th Massachusetts
---Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation officially authorized the use of African-American troops in combat
---54th led an assault on the Confederate stronghold of Fort Wagner
---50 percent casualties in the failed attack

-Robert E. Lee
---U.S. Army's best officers, Robert E. Lee declined Lincoln's offer to command Federal troops
---led the Army of Northern Virginia to impressive victories (Second Manassas and Chancellorsville)
---Defeat at Gettysburg ended Lee's northern invasion and turned the tide of war toward the Union.
---his surrender at Appomattox Court House effectively ended the war, but he was still considered a hero
-”Stonewall” Jackson
---earned his famous nickname when his brigade held fast against a Union assault at Manassas
---helped lead the Confederates to victory in the Battle of Fredericksburg.
---led the capture of Harper's Ferry
---seriously wounded by one of his own men and died
-Jefferson Davis
---moderate secessionist
---Congress unanimously elected him.
---senator and secretary of war.
---suffered from chronic illness and had a contentious personality, feuding with top generals
---focused to much on war in Virginia which came at the expense of Confederate strongholds in the West, such as Vicksburg.
-Wade Hampton
---richest planter in the South
--- led the cavalry corps after Stuart's death
---Wounded three times, he became a southern hero
---helped restore white rule in South Carolina and prevented blacks from voting
-Army of Northern Virginia
---Organized by General Robert E. Lee
---most successful Confederate fighting force.
---troops exhausted by their defense of Petersburg

-Fort Sumter
---President Abraham Lincoln sent a fleet to resupply the fort.
---Confederates fired on Sumter. Major Robert Anderson's garrison surrendered after a 33-hour bombardment,
---Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to put down the Southern rebellion. The Civil War had begun.
---Robert E. Lee's invading Army of Northern Virginia near Antietam Creek at Sharpsburg, -Maryland
---bloodiest single day of fighting in American history
---Antietam was a strategic victory for the Union that ended Confederate hopes of British or French intervention and gave Lincoln the opportunity he needed to issue his Emancipation Proclamation.
---vicksburg stood as the last remaining Confederate stronghold in the region.
---Ulysses S. Grant sent 40,000 Union troops west across the Mississippi and back again, in order to approach Vicksburg from the south.
--- Pemberton surrendered on July 4.
---Grant's success at Vicksburg turned the tide of the war, leaving the Union in control of the Mississippi River and effectively splitting the Confederacy in half.
---75,000 rebels clashed