These chemical processes require energy. The minimum amount of energy your body requires to carry out these chemical processes is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR).
Your BMR accounts for anything between 40% and 70% of your body’s daily energy requirements depending on your age and lifestyle. A ‘slow metabolism’ is described as a low BMR.
Catabolism – The metabolic breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones, often resulting in a release of energy.
Anabolism - The phase of metabolism in which simple substances are synthesized into the complex materials of living tissue.
• Air is warmed, moistened and filtered as it travels through the mouth and nasal passages.
• It then passes through the trachea and one of the two bronchi into one of the lungs.
• After passing into the bronchioles, it eventually arrives into some of the millions of tiny sacs called alveoli.
• This is where gas exchange takes place - oxygen passes out of the air into the blood, and carbon dioxide passes out of the blood into the air in the alveoli.
The lungs are the main organs in the respiratory system. In the lungs oxygen is taken into the body and carbon dioxide is breathed out. The red blood cells are accountable for picking up the oxygen in the lungs and carrying the oxygen to all the body cells that need it. The red blood cells drop off the oxygen to the body cells, then pick up the carbon dioxide which is a waste gas product produced by our cells. The red blood cells transport the carbon dioxide back to the lungs and we breathe it out when we exhale.
• The start of the process - the mouth: The digestive process begins in the mouth. Food is mostly broken down by the process of chewing and by the chemical action of salivary enzymes.
• On the way to the stomach: After being chewed and swallowed, the food enters the oesophagus. The oesophagus is a long tube that runs from the mouth to the stomach. This muscle movement gives us the ability to eat or drink.
• In the stomach - The stomach is a large, sack-like organ that mixes the food and bathes it in a very strong acid (gastric acid). Food in the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids is called chyme.
• In the small intestine - After being in the stomach, food enters the first part of the small intestine. In the small intestine, bile (produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder), pancreatic enzymes, and other digestive enzymes produced by the inner wall of the small intestine help to breakdown the food.
• In the large intestine - After passing through the small intestine, food passes into the large intestine. In the large intestine, some of the water and electrolytes (chemicals like sodium) are removed from the food.
• The end of the process - Solid waste is then stored in the rectum until it is excreted via the anus.
The human body uses the energy released by respiration for many uses like brain metabolism, generating heat to maintain body temperature, producing motion and for metabolic requirements of other organs and tissues. The energy for use in our bodies comes from the food we eat and different foods have different energy levels. However, the human body does not change over all foods into energy since it may not have the enzymes to break them down to helpful energy.
Mouth The mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract, one of the main body organs. In fact, digestion starts here as soon as you take the first bite of a meal. Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested and saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use.
The different types of energy
Kinetic – Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Any…